Issues in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector Faced by Article 5 Parties
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Issues in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector Faced by Article 5 Parties. Roberto A. Peixoto Maua Institute of Technology - IMT. Disclaimer : The views expressed are those of the author and do not represent those of the TEAP or the RTOC. Background Challenges and Barriers

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Issues in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Sector Faced by Article 5 Parties

Roberto A. Peixoto

Maua Institute of Technology - IMT

Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the author and do not represent those of the TEAP or the RTOC


  • Background Faced by Article 5 Parties

  • Challenges and Barriers

  • Way forward


Background
Background Faced by Article 5 Parties

  • Number of RAC products will increase strongly in developing countries

    • population growth, fast urbanization, electrification and changes in consumer patterns

    • development of the cold chain, especially commercial refrigeration, and the automobile industry (MAC)

Source: GIZ-2013


Background1
Background Faced by Article 5 Parties

  • Demand for refrigerant will increase

  • RAC products will play a role in:

    • future energy consumption

    • GHG emission

  • Article 5 countries have progressed in implementation of their Stage I HPMPs and are in the process to start preparation of Stage II HPMPs

  • Article 5 countries will need to address the RAC manufacturing/servicing sectors

    • Reduce/control the number of new HCFC-22 based installations

  • High-GWP HFCs have been/are considered as replacements for HCFCs


Challenges and barriers
Challenges and Barriers Faced by Article 5 Parties

  • To avoid replacing HCFCs with high-GWP HFCs

  • Alternative refrigerants must provide:

    • environmental sustainability

    • performance

    • safety

    • total cost of ownership

  • Some low GWP options are not fully mature at present and their application cannot be achieved immediately

  • The use of unsaturated HFCs (HFOs) for the conversion of refrigeration/air-conditioning equipment is yet to be demonstrated

  • Companies in 5 countries do not agree to implement technology not yet commercialized in developed countries


Challenges and barriers1
Challenges and Barriers Faced by Article 5 Parties

  • The use of flammable refrigerants requires assessing procedures and establishing standards on good practices

  • High ambient temperatures generate more stringent conditions and lead to more restrictive conditions in terms of refrigerant choices

  • Regulations requiring air-conditioning equipment to be energy efficient in order to enter the market increases the need to find alternatives in the short term

  • Need to assess climate impact of RAC equipment during their lifetime: emissions of refrigerants, energy consumption

  • UNEP study: Barriers to the Use of low GWP Refrigerants in Developing Countries


Way forward
Way forward Faced by Article 5 Parties

  • Technology to leapfrog high-GWP HFCs in RAC is available in many applications

  • Adoption of technically and economically feasible alternatives

    • safe, climate friendly and energy efficient

  • needs support for technology transfer, technical and other guidance

  • Introduction and update of safety standards on refrigerants

  • Demonstration projects and financial incentives to support low GWP technologies

  • Technician training is essential for the proper handling of refrigerants

  • Regulations and voluntary agreements


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