introduction to iran evolution of the iranian state
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Introduction to Iran / Evolution of the Iranian State

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Introduction to Iran / Evolution of the Iranian State. Population: 66.3 million Territory: 636,296 sq. miles Year of Independence : 550 B.C. Year of Current Constitution : 1979, amended in 1989 Head of State: Ali Khamenei (Supreme Leader) Head of Government:

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country bio iran
Population:

66.3 million

Territory:

636,296 sq. miles

Year of Independence:

550 B.C.

Year of Current Constitution:

1979, amended in 1989

Head of State:

Ali Khamenei (Supreme Leader)

Head of Government:

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President)

Language:

Persian, regional languages

Religion:

Twelver Shiite Muslim 90%, Sunni Muslim 9%, non-Muslims less than 1%

Country Bio: Iran
historical turning points
Historical Turning Points
  • 559 BCE --- Empire of Cyrus the Great
  • 332 BCE --- Conquest by Alexander the Great and the Greeks
  • 250 BCE --- Parthian Dynasty
  • 226 CE --- Sassanian Dynasty
  • 638 --- Arab/Islamic Conquest
  • 1219 --- Mongol Invasion
  • 1501 --- Safavid Dynasty establishes Shiism as state religion
  • 1796 --- Qajar Dynasty
political turning points i
Political Turning Points I
  • 1905 --- Constitutional Revolution
  • 1908 --- Oil discovered
  • 1925 --- Reza Khan overthrows Qajar Dynasty
  • 1941 --- Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi becomes shah
  • 1950’s --- Mossadeq nationalizes oil industry; US coup d\'état restores shah
  • 1960s-70s --- White Revolution/Khomeini in exile
  • 1979 --- Islamic Revolution
political turning points ii
Political Turning Points II
  • 1980-1988 --- War with Iraq
  • 1989 --- Khomeini dies; Khamenei succeeds him as Supreme Leader after a power struggle in the Assembly of Religious Experts
  • 1997 --- Reformist Khatami elected president
  • 2000 --- Reformist candidates win control of the Majlis
  • 2004 --- Conservatives regain control of Majlis, after 2,500 reformist candidates disqualified
  • 2005 --- Conservative Ahmadinejad elected president
  • 2009 --- Ahmadinejad reelected
important facts
Important facts:
  • Unitary
  • Dual executive
  • Written constitution
  • Theocratic state
  • Jurist guardianship—senior clerics have authority over entire community
oil the rent seeking state
Oil & the Rent-seeking state
  • Rentier Economy—govt. revenues derived from foreign purchases of a resource (oil)
  • The people become unnecessary to the government  no need to tax
    • So the government doesn’t have to worry about the people’s demands
islamic revolution the republic 1979 present
Islamic Revolution & the Republic (1979-present)
  • Revolution – short, relatively nonviolent upheaval supported by middle class
  • Causes
    • Shah perceived as being totalitarian
    • Iran too secular, too tied to West
    • Struggling economy
  • Effects
    • Theocracy established
    • Sharia law
    • Fundamental Islam
us iranian hostage crisis 1979
US-Iranian hostage crisis (1979)
  • 52 Americans held for 444 days
death of khomeini
Death of Khomeini
  • Khomeini died in 1989
    • Constitution amended to change selection criteria for Supreme Leader (chosen by Assembly of Religious Experts)
    • Soon after death of Khomeini, economic development became central concern of Iranian state
president khatami
President Khatami
  • 1997-2005
  • Reformist leader
    • Increased freedom of the press
    • More open civil society
    • Better relations with foreign countries
    • Free market + foreign investment
  • 2004 – Reformist period ended when 2,500 candidates for Majlis disqualified by Guardian Council
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