Introduction to iran evolution of the iranian state
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Introduction to Iran / Evolution of the Iranian State. Population: 66.3 million Territory: 636,296 sq. miles Year of Independence : 550 B.C. Year of Current Constitution : 1979, amended in 1989 Head of State: Ali Khamenei (Supreme Leader) Head of Government:

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Introduction to Iran / Evolution of the Iranian State

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Introduction to iran evolution of the iranian state

Introduction to Iran / Evolution of the Iranian State


Country bio iran

Population:

66.3 million

Territory:

636,296 sq. miles

Year of Independence:

550 B.C.

Year of Current Constitution:

1979, amended in 1989

Head of State:

Ali Khamenei (Supreme Leader)

Head of Government:

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (President)

Language:

Persian, regional languages

Religion:

Twelver Shiite Muslim 90%, Sunni Muslim 9%, non-Muslims less than 1%

Country Bio: Iran


Historical turning points

Historical Turning Points

  • 559 BCE --- Empire of Cyrus the Great

  • 332 BCE --- Conquest by Alexander the Great and the Greeks

  • 250 BCE --- Parthian Dynasty

  • 226 CE --- Sassanian Dynasty

  • 638 --- Arab/Islamic Conquest

  • 1219 --- Mongol Invasion

  • 1501 --- Safavid Dynasty establishes Shiism as state religion

  • 1796 --- Qajar Dynasty


Political turning points i

Political Turning Points I

  • 1905 --- Constitutional Revolution

  • 1908 --- Oil discovered

  • 1925 --- Reza Khan overthrows Qajar Dynasty

  • 1941 --- Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi becomes shah

  • 1950’s --- Mossadeq nationalizes oil industry; US coup d'état restores shah

  • 1960s-70s --- White Revolution/Khomeini in exile

  • 1979 --- Islamic Revolution


Political turning points ii

Political Turning Points II

  • 1980-1988 --- War with Iraq

  • 1989 --- Khomeini dies; Khamenei succeeds him as Supreme Leader after a power struggle in the Assembly of Religious Experts

  • 1997 --- Reformist Khatami elected president

  • 2000 --- Reformist candidates win control of the Majlis

  • 2004 --- Conservatives regain control of Majlis, after 2,500 reformist candidates disqualified

  • 2005 --- Conservative Ahmadinejad elected president

  • 2009 --- Ahmadinejad reelected


Important facts

Important facts:

  • Unitary

  • Dual executive

  • Written constitution

  • Theocratic state

  • Jurist guardianship—senior clerics have authority over entire community


Oil the rent seeking state

Oil & the Rent-seeking state

  • Rentier Economy—govt. revenues derived from foreign purchases of a resource (oil)

  • The people become unnecessary to the government  no need to tax

    • So the government doesn’t have to worry about the people’s demands


Islamic revolution the republic 1979 present

Islamic Revolution & the Republic (1979-present)

  • Revolution – short, relatively nonviolent upheaval supported by middle class

  • Causes

    • Shah perceived as being totalitarian

    • Iran too secular, too tied to West

    • Struggling economy

  • Effects

    • Theocracy established

    • Sharia law

    • Fundamental Islam


Us iranian hostage crisis 1979

US-Iranian hostage crisis (1979)

  • 52 Americans held for 444 days


Death of khomeini

Death of Khomeini

  • Khomeini died in 1989

    • Constitution amended to change selection criteria for Supreme Leader (chosen by Assembly of Religious Experts)

    • Soon after death of Khomeini, economic development became central concern of Iranian state


President khatami

President Khatami

  • 1997-2005

  • Reformist leader

    • Increased freedom of the press

    • More open civil society

    • Better relations with foreign countries

    • Free market + foreign investment

  • 2004 – Reformist period ended when 2,500 candidates for Majlis disqualified by Guardian Council


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