Achievement Standard 1.2. Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic anatomical features. Body Structure and Function. Body Structure and Function
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Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through…
Understanding Basic anatomical features
Other factors that influence human movement and action include:
The skeleton provides levers & joints that allow movement to occur
The type of bone / joint is related to the degree of movement possible.
Long bones. E.g. …..
Short bones. E.g. …..
Irregular bones. E.g. …..
Flat bones. E.g. …..
Types of joints….
Ball & Socket
Examples are the hip and shoulder
Movement occurs in all directions
Examples are the elbow and knee (the knee is a modified hinge joint as there is slight rotation)
Movement occurs in 2 directions in one plane – forwards & backwards
Examples are the neck (where the atlas pivots around the axis at the top of the spine) and the radioulner joint below the elbow joint (allows lower arm to rotate)
You need to be able to discuss the type of movement associated with various joints in the human body and relate this to specific sporting examples.
Bending a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn together
Examples include elbow flexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, …
Straightening a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn apart
Examples include elbow extension, knee extension, hip extension, …
Moving the bone away from the mid-line of the body
(when someone is abducted they are ‘taken away’).
Examples include abduction of the arm as it is drawn out to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.
Moving the bone towards the mid-line of the body
(adduction is adding to the mid-line of the body).
Examples include adduction of the arm as it is drawn in to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.
Pointing the toes downwards
Examples in sport include diving, gymnastics, acceleration in sprinting, jumping in volleyball, …
Pulling the toes upwards towards the tibia
Pronation is a rotational movement of the forearm at the radioulnar joint. (Pronation also occurs in the foot.)
Supination: Rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm is up (and the corresponding movement of the foot and leg with the sole up).