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Achievement Standard 1.2. Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic anatomical features. Body Structure and Function. Body Structure and Function

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Achievement Standard 1.2

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Achievement standard 1 2

Achievement Standard 1.2

Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through…

Understanding Basic anatomical features


Body structure and function

Body Structure and Function

Body Structure

and Function

Other factors that influence human movement and action include:

Biomechanical factors

Improving fitness

UNDERSTANDING


The human skeleton

UNDERSTANDING

The Human skeleton

What other functions does the human skeleton have?

Imagine a body WITHOUT a skeleton!


The human skeleton1

UNDERSTANDING

The Human skeleton

Are there any other functions of the human skeleton?

What roles do the skull and rib-cage have?


The human skeleton2

UNDERSTANDING

The Human skeleton

Many of the bones of the human skeleton are long and hollow.


The human skeleton3

UNDERSTANDING

The Human skeleton

Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of bones that produces blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. White blood cells act to ward off infection. Platelets aid in blood-clotting.


The human skeleton4

UNDERSTANDING

The Human skeleton

The human skeleton serves one other function?

The skeleton also stores minerals such as calcium.


Functions of the skeleton

Functions of the Skeleton

REMEMBERING


Functions of the skeleton1

Functions of the Skeleton

REMEMBERING


The human skeleton5

APPLY KNOWLEDGE

The Human skeleton

How does each of the functions relate to performance in physical activity?


Movement

Movement…

The skeleton provides levers & joints that allow movement to occur

The type of bone / joint is related to the degree of movement possible.

Long bones. E.g. …..

Short bones. E.g. …..

Irregular bones. E.g. …..

Flat bones. E.g. …..

Types of joints….

APPLY KNOWLEDGE


Storage

BLOOD CELL FORMATION

sUPPORT

PROTECTION

UNDERSTANDING

STORAGE

MOVEMENT

The 5 functions of the skeleton are:


Types of joints

Types of Joints

Ball & Socket

Examples are the hip and shoulder

Movement occurs in all directions

UNDERSTANDING


Types of joints1

Types of Joints

Hinge Joint

Examples are the elbow and knee (the knee is a modified hinge joint as there is slight rotation)

Movement occurs in 2 directions in one plane – forwards & backwards

UNDERSTANDING


Types of joints2

Types of Joints

Pivot Joint

Examples are the neck (where the atlas pivots around the axis at the top of the spine) and the radioulner joint below the elbow joint (allows lower arm to rotate)

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement

Types of Movement

You need to be able to discuss the type of movement associated with various joints in the human body and relate this to specific sporting examples.


Types of movement1

Types of Movement

Flexion

Bending a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn together

Examples include elbow flexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, …

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement2

Types of Movement

Extension

Straightening a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn apart

Examples include elbow extension, knee extension, hip extension, …

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement3

Types of Movement

Abduction

Moving the bone away from the mid-line of the body

(when someone is abducted they are ‘taken away’).

Examples include abduction of the arm as it is drawn out to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement4

Types of Movement

Adduction

Moving the bone towards the mid-line of the body

(adduction is adding to the mid-line of the body).

Examples include adduction of the arm as it is drawn in to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement5

Types of Movement

Plantar Flexion

Pointing the toes downwards

Examples in sport include diving, gymnastics, acceleration in sprinting, jumping in volleyball, …

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement6

Types of Movement

Dorsi-Flexion

Pulling the toes upwards towards the tibia

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement7

Types of Movement

Pronation

Pronation is a rotational movement of the forearm at the radioulnar joint. (Pronation also occurs in the foot.)

http://images.google.co.nz/imgres?imgurl=http://adhd-tennis.org/images/pronation.jpg&imgrefurl=http://adhd-tennis.org/serve.aspx&usg=__hEjucuNmw5EZcznFwIwmr7Y0NmI=&h=640&w=467&sz=33&hl=en&start=55&tbnid=fzNKjyr3JyA5aM:&tbnh=137&tbnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpronation%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26start%3D54

UNDERSTANDING


Types of movement8

Types of Movement

Supination

Supination: Rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm is up (and the corresponding movement of the foot and leg with the sole up).

UNDERSTANDING


Muscles of the human body

REMEMBERING

Muscles of The Human body

Label the muscles indicated on the photo above.


Muscles of the human body1

UNDERSTANDING

Muscles of The Human body

For each muscle give 2 examples of actions it is responsible for?

E.g. Abdominals are responsible for a sit up and a ‘pike’ in a dive.


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