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Climate change: B angladesh perspective. Kazi Farhed Iqubal Department of Environmental Science State University of Bangladesh. Climate.

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Climate change b angladesh perspective

Climate change: Bangladesh perspective

Kazi Farhed Iqubal

Department of Environmental Science

State University of Bangladesh


Climate

Climate

Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the “average weather”, or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the WMO. These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, altitude, persistent ice or snow cover, as well as nearby oceans and their currents. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system


Climate change
Climate Change

  • Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” of a region or the earth as a whole. Average weather may include average temperature, precipitation and wind patterns. It involves changes in the variability or average state of the atmosphere over decades to millions of years. These changes can be caused by dynamic processes on Earth, external forces including variations in sunlight intensity, and more recently by human activities.

  • In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term "climate change" usually refers to changes in modern climate


Cause of cc
Cause of CC

  • Increased GHG emission following industrial revolution ( burning fossil fuel, industrialization etc.)

  • Increased GHG level in the atmosphere

  • More heat energy from sunlight absorbed by increased GHG in the atmosphere

  • Overall temperature of the planet increased (global warming)

  • Changes in the precipitation and wind pattern along with the temperature (over 30 years avg or more) are referred as CC



Major greenhouse gas
Major Greenhouse Gas

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Methane (CH4)

Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

CFC12 (CCI2F2)

HCFC22(CHCIF2)

Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)


Sources of GHGs

  • Energy Sector

  • Energy Industry

  • Manufacturing Industries

  • Transport

  • Residential Sector

  • Commercial

  • Agriculture

  • Agriculture Sector

  • Crop Agriculture

  • Livestock and Manure Management-

  • Landuse Change and Forestry

  • Conversion of Land

  • Consumption of Timber and Deforestation


Approaches to solutions and actions
Approaches to solutions and actions

  • Mitigation

    • Kyoto Protocol (the first limited action)

    • Kyoto mechanisms (CDM, JI, Emissions Trading)

  • Adaptation

  • Technology transfer

  • Adequate fund flow ( AF, LDCF, SCCF, MDTF, BCCF, etc.)




Country context and vulnerability
Country context and vulnerability

  • Deltaic landscape, 80%floodplain

  • Population density very high (1045/km2)

  • High level of Poverty (less than $1 a day 29%, less than $2 a day 84%)

  • Disaster prone, people are exposed to hazards

  • Natural resources based (predominantly agrarian) economy

  • Recognized globally as most vulnerable to Climate Change


Climate change impacts makes it worse
Climate Change Impacts: makes it worse

  • More floods ( 1998, 2004, 2007, water logging, flash flood)

  • Increased moisture stress (droughts, even in the Coastal Zone)

  • Intensified cyclone, wind, storm surge, turbulent sea, precipitation

  • Salinity intrusion (100 km in to the country side during dry season)

  • Greater temperature extremes

  • Slow-onset impacts (salinization, dryness, ecosystem degradation etc.)


Ipcc projection ar 4
IPCC Projection (AR 4)

The annual mean rainfall exhibits increasing trends in Bangladesh. Decadal rain anomalies are above long term averages since 1960s.

Serious and recurring floods have taken place during 2002, 2003, and 2004. Cyclones originating from the Bay of Bengal have been noted to decrease since 1970 but the intensity has increased.

Water shortages has been attributed to rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and inefficient water use, which are aggravated by changing climate and its adverse impacts on demand, supply and water quality.

Salt water from the Bay of Bengal is reported to have penetrated 100 km or more inland along tributary channels during the dry season.

The precipitation decline and droughts has resulted in the drying up of wetlands and severe degradation of ecosystems.


Drought Hazards

0 SLR

32 cm SLR

88 cm SLR

Flood Hazards

Cyclone Salinity


Climate Change Challenges Development

  • Affects…

    • Agriculture, Industry, Health, Infrastructure and others

    • Ecosystems, Special areas

  • (EPZ, Coastal zones, etc.)

    • Farmers, Fishermen, Natural resource collectors

    • People living in marginal land

    • Women, child & disadvantaged groups


Gradual impacts
Gradual impacts

Agriculture

Flood, flash flood, droughts, salinity, precipitation pattern

Rice and wheat production reduce 8% and 32% respectively by 2050

Fisheries impacted negatively (salinity intrusion, fisheries recruitment etc)

Water

Flood/flash flood timing

Increased precipitation in the catchments bring more water which is beyond drainage capacity, infrastructure insufficient capacity

Urban flooding, drainage congestion (drainage infrastructure and channels are insufficient)

Salinity intrusion (irrigation, domestic use, drinking water)

Trans-boundary water issues


Gradual impacts1
Gradual Impacts

Health

Increased water and vector borne diseases

Increased diseases due to salinity and water logging

Sanitation, safe drinking water

Coastal zone

Intensified cyclone

Increased/ storm surges, wave heights, turbulent sea

Salinity intrusion, soil salinity, ground water salinity

Special areas

Ecosystems

Areas with high economic importance (Export Process Zone, ports etc)

Most vulnerable groups

Women, children, elderly

Disadvantaged groups (ethnic, fisher, Sundarban dependent etc)



Climate change disaster risks
Climate Change – Disaster Risks

Increased SST potential for more cyclone landfall and storm surges

Increased rain during monsoon/post monsoon in upper catchment & or within Bangladesh leads to more floods and disasters

Water shortage and higher temperature results into acute and more spread droughts

More erosion

Infrastructures: threat past gains and needs new design


Response
Response

National

Government

Civil society

International

UNFCCC, Kyoto protocol, Negotiation, funding mechanism

Development partners


Response national
Response National

Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC ratified

A large number of studies

NAPA, National communication

International process (Negotiation)

Climate Change Cell

BCCSAP 2009

BCCF


Civil society
Civil Society

Championed the concern in country/abroad, active earlier

Work closely/partnerships with Government entities (NAPA, national communication, etc.)

Part of country delegation to COP/MOP

Numerous studies, assessments (over 100)

Civil society initiatives are on the ground, piloting and demonstration and building community resilience

Government learns from these and uptake for scale up and institutionalization



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