Psychology 163 developmental psychology lecture 15 parenting families
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Psychology 163 – Developmental Psychology – Lecture 15 Parenting & Families. Warmth & Support. Baumrind (1977): Parenting Dimensions. Authoritarian ("Dictatorship")

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Psychology 163 – Developmental Psychology – Lecture 15 Parenting & Families

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Psychology 163 – Developmental Psychology – Lecture 15 Parenting & Families

Warmth & Support

Baumrind (1977): Parenting Dimensions

  • Authoritarian ("Dictatorship")

    "Shape, control, evaluate behavior in accordance with an absolute set of standards; values obedience, respect for authority, work, tradition, and preservation of order; discourage verbal give and take. These parents sometime reject their children if they don't live up to the parents standards."

“Authoritarian parents” (Siegler, DeLoache, & Eisenberg, 2003)

When Elene takes Mark’s toy, Elene’s mother comes over, grabs her arm, and says in an angry voice, “Haven’t I warned you about taking others’ things? Return that toy now or you will not be able to watch TV tonight. I’m tired of you disobeying me!

Baumrind (1977): Parenting Dimensions

  • Permissive ("Anarchy")

    "Attempt to behave in an accepting, positive way toward child's impulses, desires, actions; use little punishment; consult the child; makes few demands for household responsibility or order; allow child to regulate their own activities and avoid control; attempt to use reasoning, but not overt power to achieve objectives."

“Permissive parents” (Siegler, DeLoache, & Eisenberg, 2003)

When Jeff takes away Angelina’s toy, Jeff’s mother does not intervene. She doesn’t like to discipline her son and usually does not try to control his actions, even though she is very affectionate with him in other situations.

Baumrind (1977): Parenting Dimensions

  • Authoritative ("Democratic Dictatorship")

    "Direct children in rational, issue-oriented manner; encourage verbal give and take, explain reasons behind demands and discipline; use power when necessary; expect child to conform to adult requirements and to be independent and self-directed; child is expected to recognize the rights of others; parents set standards and enforce them firmly; listens to child, but do not base decisions primarily on child's desires."

“Authoritative parents” (Siegler, DeLoache, & Eisenberg, 2003)

When Kareem takes away Troy’s toy, Kareem’s mother takes him aside, points out that the toy belongs to Troy and that Kareem has made Troy upset. She also says, “Remember our rule about taking others’ things. Now think about how to make things right with Troy.” Her tone is firm but not hostile, and she waits to see if Kareem returns the toy.

John Martin and Ellenor Maccoby (1983)

  • Uninvolved (“Libertarian”) also called Rejecting-Neglecting

    “…heavily involved in other activities and has little time or attention to spare for the child. The uninvolved parent is likely to be motivated to do whatever is necessary to minimize the costs in time and effort of interaction with the child…In general, the parenting styles that are associated with low levels of involvement are likely to reflect a desire to keep the child at a distance…parents will tend to orient their behavior primarily toward the avoidance of inconvenience. Thus they will respond to immediate demands from the children in such a way as to terminate them (1983, p.p. 48-49).”

“Rejecting-Neglecting (uninvolved)parents” (Siegler, DeLoache, & Eisenberg, 2003)

When Heather takes away Alonzo’s toy, Heather’s mother, as she does in most situations, pays no attention. She generally is not very involved with her child and would prefer that her husband deal with disciplining Heather. Even when Heather behaves well, her mother rarely hugs her or expresses approval of Heather or her behavior.

Dimensions of parenting style (Baumrind & others)

  • Parental “responsiveness & warmth”

    • Degree of parental warmth

    • Support (engagement, encouragement) of child

    • Acceptance of child’s preferences & point of view

    • High degree of responding to the child’s cues

  • Parental “control & demandingness”

    • “Control” over activities, actions & child’s involvement

    • “Demandingness” of conduct, expectations & standards of moral, academic and social behavior

Dimensions of parenting style (Baumrind & others)

  • “Authoritative” dimensions

    • High in both demands and warmth-responsiveness

    • Set clear standards and limits, and measured enforcement

      • use minimal effective force needed

      • not too much or unnecessary force

    • Consistent in responses

      • Predictable in response

    • Calm, reasoned and open conversation

    • Monitor children’s behavior

    • Attentive to child’s concerns & needs

    • Give a lot of autonomy within limits, not intrusive

Dimensions of parenting style (Baumrind & others)

  • “Authoritarian” dimensions

    • Cold and unresponsive to child’s needs

    • High in control and demandingness

    • Expect “obedience” (response without questions)

    • Discourage conversation & giving reasons

    • Control enforced

      • With power, threats, punishment

      • Invalidating or discounting child’s communication or feelings (“cutting off conversation”, belittling)

      • Withdrawal of love & attention, exploit guilt

Dimensions of parenting style (Baumrind & others)

  • “Permissive” dimensions

    • Responsive to child’s needs & wishes

    • Lenient with few limits or controls

    • Do not require children to regulate themselves

    • High tolerance for inappropriate behavior

Dimensions of parenting style (Baumrind & others)

  • Uninvolved (rejecting-neglecting) dimensions

    • Disengaged from children

    • Low in both responsiveness & demandingness

    • No limit setting or monitoring of children

    • Focus on the needs of the parents

Children of Authoritative Parents

  • More competent than children from other parenting styles

    • More self-assured

    • Greater social awareness & popular with peers

    • Tend to behave in accordance with adult’s expectations (greater self-control)

    • Low in anti-social behavior

  • As adolescents:

    • Higher in social & academic competence

    • Self-reliant

    • Relatively low in drug use & other problem-behavior

Children of Authoritarian Parents

  • Relatively reduced in social & academic competence

  • Tend to be more unhappy & unfriendly (compared to “authoritative” families)

  • Lower self-confidence (boys more so)

  • As adolescents:

    • Lower social competence

    • Lower academic competence

Children of Permissive Parents

  • Tend to be impulsive & lack self-control

  • Lower in school achievement (than either “authoritative” or “authoritarian”)

  • As adolescents:

    • Greater antisocial behavior

    • Greater chronic drug use

Children of Uninvolved Parents

  • Disturbed attachment relationships as infants & toddlers

  • Problems with peers through childhood

  • As adolescents:

    • Antisocial behavior & poor social competence

    • Poor self-regulation (self-control, care for self)

    • “Internalization problems” (i.e., depression or social withdrawal)

    • Significant substance abuse

    • Riskier sexual behavior

    • Lower academic competence

Effects of parental credibility

  • Children tend to view punishment as credible coming from fair (authoritative) parents, compared to parents who were:

    • inconsistently used (permissive)

    • Cold or hostile (authoritarian)

    • or neglecting (uninvolved)

  • Children are more receptive to parents who are supportive & reasonable (authoritative), compared to parents who were:

    • erratic (permissive),

    • harsh (authoritarian)

    • or neglectful (uninvolved)

Say what you mean;

Mean what you say;

Do what you say you are going to do

Bi-directionality of parent-child interactions (Patterson, 1982)

  • Raising children is a “two-way street”

    • “Disposition” of parents

    • “Disposition” of child

  • Temperament of child can vary from “hard” to “easy”

  • What is a temperamentally “hard” child?

    • High activity levels

    • Elevated likelihood for negative emotions

    • Difficulty with sleep, eating or other daily functions

Parents run the risk of “polarizing” their parenting approaches

  • When one parent is viewed as too extreme in their approach…

    • The Authoritarian parent becomes even more strict in response to the Permissive parent…

    • And, the Permissive parent becomes even more “forgiving” of transgressions in response to the Authoritarian parent.

  • Net effect? The worst of both approaches!

Bi-directionality of parent-child interactions (Patterson, 1982)

  • Parenting with a temperamentally “hard” child can spiral into problems

    • Parental response can:

      • exacerbate problems

      • reinforce inappropriate behavior

    • Children’s responses can “ratchet up”

      • If whining doesn’t work, increase aggression

      • If aggression doesn’t work, progress to hysteria & tantrums

Bi-directionality of parent-child interactions (Patterson, 1982)

  • Child’s inappropriate behavior can exacerbate inappropriate parental behavior

    • Anger & reactive responses

    • Punitive responses

    • Reduction in reasoned conversation

    • Avoidance of learning opportunities to avoid problems

  • The “trick” is to learn balanced responsiveness

    • Use the needed and effective force necessary to manage situation

    • Be able to turn on the warmth and responsiveness (even when you don’t feel like it)

Effects of Maternal Employment: “it depends”

  • If children’s activities are supervised after school, children tend to do well

  • Poor after school supervision associated with poorer academic outcomes

  • Infants whose mothers work before 9-months look weaker in school readiness dimensions at 3-years

  • Findings poorer for child:

    • If mother works longer than 30-hours

    • For boys

Effects of Maternal Employment: “it depends”

  • Maternal employment with elementary school children:

    • Children show higher academic performance

    • Were often more socially assertive and independent

  • Elementary school (and older) girls of employed moms show higher social adjustment and competence

    • These mothers used more authoritative parenting style

    • Girls tend to be more rejecting of traditional & confining gender roles

    • Positive role models influence girls’ feelings of effectiveness

    • Elementary school boys show more problem behavior

Effects of Maternal Employment: “it depends”

  • Adolescents in low-income, mother-single parent homes reported higher positive emotions & esteem

  • African-American girls with working mother’s more likely to stay in school than if mother is “employable” (i.e., able to work), but unemployed

Effects of Maternal Employment: “it depends”

  • Single moms with poor paying jobs tend to be less supportive of their children compared to when they are home full-time

    • Associated with stress due to poor paying, undesirable job & having to leave home

  • Outcomes of maternal employment correlate with the mothers’ wishes to be employed

    • Better outcomes if mom wants to work and does or if she wants to stay home and does

  • Influence of maternal employment effected by nature and quality of childcare

Effects of childcare: Depends on the conditions of the childcare environment

Minimum standards set by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Public Health Association:

  • A child-to-caregiver ratio of:

    • 3:1 for children 6-to-15-months

    • 4:1 for 2-year olds

    • 7:1 for 3-year olds

      2.Maximum group sizes of:

    • 6 for children 6-to-15-months

    • 8 for 2-year olds

    • 14 for 3-year olds

      3.Formal training for caregivers (certification or college degree) in child development, early childhood education or related fields

National Institutes of Child Health & Development studies

  • Children receiving long hours of childcare (30-hours/week) or children who experience many changes in childcare providers:

    • If under 2-years of age predicts lower social competence and problem behavior between 2-to-3-years of age

    • By 4 ½-years increases in aggression and noncompliance

      • 17% of children receiving more than 30-hours of childcare showed aggressive behavior compared to 6% of children receiving less than 10-hour

  • Positive outcomes correlate with authoritative parents

  • Social skills improve for many children

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