Ellipses and Circles

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# Ellipses and Circles - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Ellipses and Circles. Section 10.3. 1 st Definition of a Circle. A circle is a conic section formed by a plane intersecting one cone perpendicular to the axis of the double-napped cone. The degenerate conic section that is associated with a circle is a point. 2 nd Definition of a Circle.

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Ellipses and Circles' - clancy

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### Ellipses and Circles

Section 10.3

A circle is a conic section formed by a plane intersecting one cone perpendicular to the axis of the double-napped cone.

• The degenerate conic section that is associated with a circle is a point.

A circle is the set of all points P in a plane that are the same distance from a given point.

• The given distance is the radius of the circle, and the given point is the center of the circle.
• Standard form of a circle with center C (h, k) and radius r is
Example 1
• Express in standard form the equation of the circle centered at (-2, 3) with radius 5.
Example 2
• Express in standard form the equation of the circle with center at the origin and radius of 4. Sketch the graph.
Example 3
• Find the center and radius of the circle with the equation
• Center:
Example 4
• Write the equation for each circle described below.
• a. The circle has its center at (8, -9) and passes through the point at (4, -6).

An ellipse is a conic section formed by a plane intersecting one cone not perpendicular to the axis of the double-napped cone.

• The degenerate conic section that is associated with an ellipse is also a point.

An ellipse is the set of all points (x, y) in a plane,

• the sum of whose distances from two distinct
• fixed points (foci) is constant.
• d1 + d2 = constant

d1

d2

The line through the foci intersects the ellipse

• at two points, called vertices. The chord joining
• the vertices is the major axis, and its midpoint is
• the center of the ellipse. The chord perpendicular
• to the major axis at the center is the minor axis
• of the ellipse.

minor axis

major axis

center

vertex

vertex

General Equation of an Ellipse
• Ax2 + Cy2 + Dx + Ey + F = 0
• If A = C, then the ellipse is a circle.

The standard form of the equation of an ellipse, with center (h, k) and major and minor axes of lengths 2a and 2b respectively, where 0 < b < a,

where the major axis is horizontal.

where the major axis is vertical.

The foci lie on the major axis, c units from the center, with c2 = a2 – b2.

• The eccentricity of an ellipse is
Example 1
• Find the center, vertices, the endpoints of the minor axis, foci, eccentricity, and graph for the ellipses given in standard form.
• a =
• b =
• c =

center:

• vertices:
• endpoints of the minor axis:
• foci:
• eccentricity:

F2

F1

V1

C

V2

Example 2
• For the following ellipse, find the center, a, b, c, vertices, the endpoints of the minor axis, foci, eccentricity, and graph.
• 16x2 + y2 − 64x + 2y + 49 = 0
• What must you do to the general equation above to do this example?
• Complete the square twice.

16x2 + y2 − 64x + 2y + 49 = 0

• 16x2 − 64x+ y2+ 2y= −49

center:

• vertices:
• endpoints of the minor axis:
• foci:
• eccentricity:

1

a =

4

b =

What type of ellipse is this ellipse?

vertical ellipse?

(2, −1)

(2, 3), (2, −5)

(3, −1), (1, −1)

V1

F1

C

F2

V2

Example 3
• Write the equation of each ellipse in standard form.
• A. Endpoints of the major axis are at (0, ±10) and whose foci are at (0, ±8).
• center: (0, 0)
• vertical ellipse
• a = 10; c = 8
• b =

B. The endpoints of the major axis are at (10, 2) and (–8, 2). The foci are at (6, 2) and (–4, 2).

C. The major axis is 20 units in length and parallel to the y-axis. The minor axis is 6 units in length. The center is located at

• (4, 2).