Recent progress in fabrication structure and properties of carbon fibers
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Recent Progress in Fabrication, Structure, and Properties of Carbon Fibers. 高分子碩一 R02549021 李威霆. Outline. Author Abstract Introduction Synthesis of PAN Fibers Carbon Fibers with Various Geometries Small Diameter and Porous Carbon Fibers Hollow Carbon Fibers

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Recent progress in fabrication structure and properties of carbon fibers

Recent Progress in Fabrication, Structure, and Properties of Carbon Fibers

高分子碩一

R02549021

李威霆


Outline

Outline

  • Author

  • Abstract

  • Introduction

  • Synthesis of PAN Fibers

  • Carbon Fibers with Various Geometries

    Small Diameter and Porous Carbon Fibers

    Hollow Carbon Fibers

    Patterned Carbon Fibers from Polyethylene

  • Concluding Remarks

  • References


Author

Author

  • Dr. Yaodong Liu

  • Title: Research Scientist II

  • Education

    • Ph.D. Georgia Institute of Technology (2010)  Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering

    • M.E. Tsinghua University (2002)  Chemical Engineering

    • B.E. Tsinghua University (2002)  Chemical Engineering

  • Work Experience

    • Georgia Institute of Technology (2010  current) Research Scientist II Research Assistant

    • Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, China

  • Research Interest

    • High performance polymer fiber spinning

    • Structure property relationships in polymer/carbon nanotubes composites

    • Stabilization and carbonization of PANbased carbon fibers


Author1

Author

  • Dr. Satish Kumar received his Ph.D. degree in 1979 from the Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India in the area of Polymer and Fiber Science.

  • He obtained his post-doctoral experience in Polymer Science and Engineering at the University of Massachusetts (1979-82).

  • For the year 1982-83, he was a visiting scientist at the Atomic Energy Commission of France, C. E. N. G., Grenoble, France.

  • During 1984-89 he was associated with the Polymer Branch, Air Force Materials Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH on contract through Universal Energy Systems and the University of Dayton Research Institute.

  • He joined Georgia Tech in 1989, where he is currently serving as Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering.


Abstract

Abstract

  • 本篇文獻主要是探討碳纖維的近代發展。

  • 碳纖維主要是以polyacrylonitrile或meso-phase pitch所製成。研究其加工條件、物性、化性和拉伸性質。

  • 碳纖維有特定的幾何形狀,如hollow、porous和patterned,不同形狀的碳纖維有其特定的應用性。

  • 奈米碳管有很好的機械性質,可加工成巨觀的連續纖維,將其混合在碳纖維的precursor fiber可以增加其強度與彈性。

  • 雖然已經有大量研究如何改善碳纖維性質、減少生產開銷,但如何擴展其應用性目前仍是很大的挑戰。


Introduction

Introduction

  • 碳纖維通常含有90%以上的碳,而且有許多良好性質,包含:拉伸強度高(2~7 Gpa)、壓縮強度好(3 Gpa↑)、彈性係數高(200~900 Gpa)、低密度(1.75~2.18 g/cm3)、低熱膨脹。並且有好的抗熱性、導電性、導熱性和抗化學性。

  • 碳纖維可用來做加強材料,應用在飛機、車子、船、機器零件、高級運動用品、壓力容器、風扇葉片、土木工程等。

  • 碳纖維是由適當的precursor fiber製造而成。

  • 碳纖維最早的商業用途是以碳化的棉或竹做為燈絲(1870s)。


Introduction1

Introduction

  • 1960s,碳纖維開始應用在加強材料,當時以rayon做為precursor。

  • PAN(polyacrylonitrile)被發現可做為碳纖維的precursor,比rayon有更高的拉伸和壓縮強度。

  • 後來發現,Petroleum pitch(石油瀝青)也可做碳纖維,有比PAN纖維更高的彈性、更好的導電性和導熱性,但是拉伸強度和壓縮強度較PAN纖維低,而且Pitch純化的過程是昂貴的。

  • PAN纖維在2000℃下可石墨化,可提高彈性係數,但會減少拉伸強度和壓縮強度。

  • 過去也嘗試過以polyester、polyamide、polyethylene、polyvinyl alcohol、polyphenylene和phenolic resin去做碳纖維,但其性質不符合期望。

  • 目前市面上90%的碳纖維由PAN製成,其餘由Pitch製成。


Introduction2

Introduction


Synthesis of pan fibers

Synthesis of PAN Fibers

  • PAN纖維的製造包含合成precursor、紡絲和熱處理。

  • 加熱過程包含三個步驟:

    1. Stabilization(180~300℃):

    經由數小時的氧化改善其熱穩定性,防止纖維

    熔化,增加碳的比率。

    2. Carbonization(350~1700 ℃):

    在惰性環境高溫加熱,去除大部分的非碳原子。

    3. Graphitization(高於2000℃):

    形成石墨結構並改善方向性。


Synthesis of pan fibers1

Synthesis of PAN Fibers


Small diameter and porous carbon fibers

Small Diameter and Porous Carbon Fibers

碳纖維的直徑約為100nm~4μm

Island-in-a-seaGeometry Fiber

Honey-comb Geometry Fiber


Hollow carbon fibers

Hollow Carbon Fibers

Electro-Spinning

Dry-jet wet spinning

  • 使用中空的碳纖維可顯著的減少複合材料的密度。


Patterned carbon fibers from polyethylene

Patterned Carbon Fibers from Polyethylene

  • 碳纖維最常見的形狀為圓形

  • 設計噴絲板的形狀,可做出trilobal、flower、gear等形狀的碳纖維,直徑約為0.5~20μm

  • 雖然這類型的碳纖維的機械性質比較差,但是其特殊的幾何形狀會有廣大的應用性。


Concluding remarks

Concluding Remarks

  • 碳纖維是重要的加強材料,可用來做高性能的複合材料。

  • 然而其製造的成本相對較高,減少其應用的廣泛程度。

  • 其他較便宜的材料像是Lignin(木質素)、Polyolefins(聚烯類)有被考慮用來製造碳纖維,但結構上的應用性並沒有很好。

  • 加工成直徑較小的碳纖維,可增加其拉伸強度。

  • 奈米碳管纖維有好的機械、熱與電的性質。

  • 中空的碳纖維密度小,有比鋼更好的強度而且又比較輕。

  • 多孔洞的碳纖維有較多表面積,可應用於能量的轉換或儲存。


References

References

  • Yaodong Liu & Satish Kumar (2012) Recent Progress in Fabrication, Structure, andProperties of Carbon Fibers, Polymer Reviews, 52:3-4, 234-258

  • http://kumar.mse.gatech.edu/members

  • http://kumar.mse.gatech.edu/

  • http://pslc.ws/macrog/carfsyn.htm


The end

The End


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