COGNITIVE LEARNING. JEAN PIAGET. Jean Piaget http :// www.pearsonhighered.com /assets/hip/us/ hip_us_pearsonhighered / samplechapter /0205314112.pdf.
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Piaget combined his background in biology with his interest in understanding how logic and knowledge develop and spent the rest of his career observing children and articulating his the- ory of cognitive development.
He applied several concepts from biology and used them to explain how knowledge develops.
Piaget’s theory is often described as a constructivist view.
According to constructivists, people interpret their environments and experiences in light of the knowledge and experiences they already have. People do not simply take in an external reality and develop an unchanged, exact mental copy of objects or events.
Instead, they build (or “construct”) their own individual understandings and knowledge.
Piaget’s Main Ideas Regarding Human Cognitin
According to Piaget cognitive activity consists of organization of information and the adaptation to the environment as the person perceives it.
Human beings organize knowledge into cognitive structures, and they modify these structures through the process of adaptation. During the process of adaptation, we assimilate information through existing cognitive structures and sometimes accommodate these previous structures as a result of the newly assimilated information
A diagram of the information flow in Piaget's process of adaptation
Organization refers to the way information is organized in a person's mind with regard to a particular object, idea, or activity.
The organized information is called content. Piaget approaches organization logically, not biologically. He is concerned with the products and processes of human activity, not with the neurological or biological cells and organs responsible for this activity.
Information is organized into cognitive structures through the processes of assimilation and accommodation.
Organization is a dynamic, not static, process; structures are constantly changing and becoming more refined.
Cognitive structures are organized sets of information, skills, or activities.
Cognitive structures can also be referred to as schemata (singular, schema).
Newborn babies have sucking schemata; older children have schemata for dogs and cats; and adults have schemata for population density, nuclear fission, and patriotism.
What most of us call concepts, Piaget calls cognitive structures or schemata.
A scheme is an organized pattern of action or thought.
It is a broad concept and can refer to organized patterns of physical action (such as an infant reaching to grasp an object), or mental action (such as a high school student thinking about how to solve an algebra problem)
He noticed, for example, that even infants have certain skills in regard to objects in their environment. These skills were certainly simple ones, sensori-motor skills, but they directed the way in which the infant explored his or her environment and so how they gained more knowledge of the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills. These skills he called schemas.
The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit.
Asimilasi : terjadi ketika individu menggabungkan informasi baru ke dalam pengetahuan mereka yang sudah ada
Assimilation is the process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures. http://wmpeople.wm.edu/asset/index/mxtsch/devopsych
The difference made to one's mind or concepts by the process of assimilation.
Akomodasi : terjadi ketika individu menyesuaikan diri dengan informasi baru
Accommodation is the process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment. It changes the schema, so it can increase its efficiency (Campbell, 2006, p. 10).
Note that assimilation and accommodation go together: you can't have one without the other.
Schema – Assimilation - Accomodation
Equilibration – is the force, which moves development along. An unpleasant state of disequilibrium happens when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation). Equilibration is the force, which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
— Jean Piaget
According to Piaget, the developmental ideal is a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is also known as equilibrium.
Piaget believed when a balance between children’s mental schemas, which is a “...mental image produced in response to a stimulus that becomes a framework or basis for analyzing or responding to other related stimuli” and the external world has been reached, children are in a comfortable state of equilibrium (Agnes, 1999, p. 1282).
Assimilation and accommodation work like pendulum swings at advancing our understanding of the world and our competency in it. According to Piaget, they are directed at a balance between the structure of the mind and the environment, at a certain congruency between the two, that would indicate that you have a good (or at least good-enough) model of the universe. This ideal state he calls equilibrium.
Thus, students have already mastered what has been taught and have confidence in their abilities to do or perform the assigned task. During this time, students are not in the process of acquiring new information or learning.
Disequilibrium occurs when children come across new environmental phenomena; these new environmental phenomena, however, often do not fit exactly into children’s mental schemas.
Students are drawn towards disequilibrium because of their curiosity. Teachers should use disequilibrium to motivate their students because it allows for changes in students’ mental structures.
Jean Piaget began his career as a biologist -- specifically, a malacologist. But his interest in science and the history of science soon overtook his interest in snails and clams. As he delved deeper into the thought-processes of doing science, he became interested in the nature of thought itself, especially in the development of thinking. Finding relatively little work done in the area, he had the opportunity to give it a label. He called it genetic epistemology, meaning the study of the development of knowledge.
Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage
Building knowledge through reflexes (grasping, sucking)
Reflexes are organized into larger, integrated behaviors (grasping a rattle and bringing it to the mouth to suck)
Repetition of actions on the environment that bring out pleasing or interesting results (banging a rattle)
Mentally representing objects when objects can no longer be seen, thus achieving “object permanence”
Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage
Actively and avidly exploring the possible use to which objects can be put : Banging a spoon or cup on high chair to make different sounds, get attentin
Able to form enduring mental representation, as demonstrated by “deferred imitatin” the repetition of others” behaviors minuts, hours, of days after it has occurred
The use of one object to stand for another
Looking at the world only from one’s own point of vies
Concrete Operation Stage
Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory
Children’s thinking is not as consistent as the stages suggest
Infants and young children are more competent than Piaget recognized
Piaget understates the social components of cognitive development
Piaget was better at describing processes than explaining how they operate
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