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THE MODERN ENVIRONMENT: FASCINATION WITH TECHNOLOGY. Search for rationality in architecture ( Perrault , Laugier ) Enlightenment Moderns Search for meaning in architecture ( Boulee , Ledoux ) Ancients ( Blondel ). HOW IS ARCHITECTURE CHANGED BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION?.

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THE MODERN ENVIRONMENT: FASCINATION WITH TECHNOLOGY

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The modern environment fascination with technology

THE MODERN ENVIRONMENT:

FASCINATION WITH TECHNOLOGY


The modern environment fascination with technology

Searchforrationality in architecture (Perrault, Laugier)

Enlightenment

Moderns

Searchformeaning in architecture (Boulee, Ledoux)

Ancients (Blondel)


The modern environment fascination with technology

HOW IS ARCHITECTURE CHANGED BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION?


The modern environment fascination with technology

ARCHITECTURAL RESULTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONTraditional materials were worked in a less profitable way and less easily distributedNew materials (cast iron, glass, concrete) offered new possibilitiesBuilding sites used better equipment and machineryNew specialized schools provided larger numbers of specially trained professionalsPrinting and new methods of graphic reproduction made new contributions readily available


The modern environment fascination with technology

Iron Bridge, Thomas Farnolls Pritchard and Abraham Darby II, 1775

This is where iron ore was first smelted by Abraham Darby using easily mined "coking coal« to produce superior quality iron. 26 meters.


The modern environment fascination with technology

Pont des Arts, Louis-Alexandre Cessart, 1803

First metal bridge in Paris. 155 m.


The modern environment fascination with technology

Menai Bridge, Thomas Telford, 1826

The first suspension bridge. 176 m.


The modern environment fascination with technology

John Augustus Roebling, “Brooklyn Bridge,” New York, USA, 1870-1883. 486m


The modern environment fascination with technology

Brooklyn Bridge under construction


The modern environment fascination with technology

Lewis Cubitt (civil engineer), “King’s Cross Train Station,”London, ENGLAND, 1851


The modern environment fascination with technology

George Gilbert Scott, St. Pancras Train Station (front), London, UK, 1873


The modern environment fascination with technology

William Henry Barlow, “St. Pancras Train Station” (back), London, UK, 1868renovated by Norman Foster & Partners in 2007


The modern environment fascination with technology

William Henry Barlow, “St. Pancras Train Station” (back), London, UK, 1868renovated by Norman Foster & Partners in 2007


The modern environment fascination with technology

François Hennebique, Monolithic [Steel] Reinforced Concrete Joint, 1892

This system used the continuity of concrete structures very successfully.  The steel reinforcement follows the maximum bending moments from the bottom of the beam mid-span to the top of the beam over the supports.The column is rigidly connected to the beams and slab, so no bracing is necessary.


Eug ne emmanuel viollet le duc 1814 79

Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc(1814-79)

Rational Dictionary of French Architecture from the 11th to the 16th Century, 1854


Viollet le duc ideal gothic church 1854

Viollet Le Duc,“Ideal Gothic Church,” 1854

Viollet Le Duc,Narbonne Gate reconstruction, 1846


The modern environment fascination with technology

Viollet Le Duc,“Design for a Concert Hall to Seat 3,000 People,” 1865Expressing Gothic principles in modern materials:brick, stone and cast iron.


The modern environment fascination with technology

Viollet Le Duc, “Design for a Market Hall,“1865


The modern environment fascination with technology

Viollet Le Duc,“Design for a Great Hall,“1865


World exhibitions

WORLD EXHIBITIONS

1851: London, UK1897: Brussels, BELGIUM1855: Paris, FRANCE1900: Paris, FRANCE1862: London, UK1901: Buffalo, USA1867: Paris, FRANCE1904: St. Louis, USA1873: Vienna, AUSTRIA1905: Liège, BELGIUM1876: Philadelphia, USA1906: Milan, ITALY1878: Paris, FRANCE1907: Dublin, IRELAND1879: Sydney, AUSTRALIA1909: Seattle, USA1884: New Orleans, USA1910: Brussels, BELGIUM1888: Barcelona, SPAIN1911: Turin, ITALY1889: Paris, FRANCE1913: Ghent, BELGIUM1893: Chicago, USA1915: San Francisco, USA


The modern environment fascination with technology

THE CRYSTAL PALACECompetition requirements:Temporary (capable of rapid construction and dismantling)Economical use of materials and laborSimple in arrangementIlluminated entirely from the roofBuilt of fire resistant materialsSingle-storey.Paxton's Innovations:The first large, free-standing cast-iron frame buildingThe first building with glass “curtain” wallsThe first building to use a system of bracing to counteract lateral forces of the windThe first large building to be made from pre-fabricated modular units


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, “The Crystal Palace,” for the “Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations,” London, UK, 1851


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, “The Crystal Palace,” for the 1851 Great Exhibition, London, UK


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, “The Crystal Palace,” for the 1851 Great Exhibition, London, UK


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Crystal Palace” under construction


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, “The Crystal Palace,” for the 1851 Great Exhibition, London, UKopening ceremonies with Queen Victoria


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, “The Crystal Palace,” for the 1851 Great Exhibition, London, UKinterior views


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, “The Crystal Palace,” for the 1851 Great Exhibition, London, UKinterior views


The modern environment fascination with technology

Joseph Paxton, “The Crystal Palace,” for the 1851 Great Exhibition, London, UKexhibited objects: machines, textiles, furniture, musical instruments, traditional crafts, etc.


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Universal Exposition,” Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Universal Exposition,”Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Universal Exposition,”Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

Caricature of Gustave Eiffel in the form ofthe Eiffel Tower by Edward Linley Sambourne(Punch Magazine, vol. 96, p. 32, June 29, 1889).

Gustave Eiffel,Tower for the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition (“The Eiffel Tower”)


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Eiffel Tower”


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Eiffel Tower” under construction


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Hall of Machines” at the Universal Exposition, Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Hall of Machines”at the Universal Exposition, Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Hall of Machines” at the Universal Exposition, Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Exotic Exhibition”at the Universal Exposition,Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

“The Exotic Exhibition”at the Universal Exposition,Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

Dancers from Java

“The Exotic Exhibition”at the Universal Exposition,Paris, FRANCE, 1889

A theater group from Vietnam


The modern environment fascination with technology

Dancers and Musicians from the Egyptian Coffee House

“The Exotic Exhibition”at the Universal Exposition,Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

The Algerian Exhibit

The Senegal Exhibit

“The Exotic Exhibition” at the Universal Exposition,Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

The two faces of the Universal Exposition,Paris, FRANCE, 1889


The modern environment fascination with technology

At the end of this lecture you are expected to have learnt:

1. The general scope of the Industrial Revolution

2. Changes in architecture in the age of Industrial revolution

a. Architectural theory (structural rationalism)

b. Architectural practice

i. New building types

ii. The tension between structure and «style»

iii. Colonial encounters


The modern environment fascination with technology

WHAT ARE THE KEYWORDS TO DESCRIBE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION?


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