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LANGUAGE. Language is the means through which all other cultural values are communicated. What is Language?. Language : a system of communication through speech. A collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.

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LANGUAGE

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Language

LANGUAGE

Language is the means through which all other cultural values are communicated


What is language

What is Language?

  • Language: a system of communication through speech. A collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.

  • Many languages have a history of written communication but it is not necessary.


Language1

Language

  • The distribution of language results from a combination of interaction and isolation

  • Every language originates in a particular location and diffuses to other locations through the migration of it’s speakers.

  • It is directly correlated to migration, the continuing connections between groups will determine the language similarities


Language2

LANGUAGE

  • Where are English language speakers distributed?

  • Why is English related to other languages?

  • Where are other language families distributed?

  • Why do people preserve local languages?


Where are english speakers distributed

Where are English Speakers distributed

  • English is the official language in 50 countries. 1/3 of the world lives in a country where English is the official language.


Where did english come from

Where did English come from?

English is distributed throughout the world because of English migrants who colonized the world.


Origin of english

Origin of English

  • Celts arrive speaking Celtic around 2000 B.C.

  • 450 A.D. Tribes from Europe push Celts into Northern and Western Britain (now Scotland and Wales).

  • Invading tribes were

    Angles, Jutes and

    Saxons


Language

Modern English evolved from the primary language spoken by Angles, Jutes and Saxons when they migrated 1,500 years ago


Other contributions

Other Contributions

  • So why is English so different from German?

    • England was conquered by Normans (from Normandy France) in 1066.

    • French became the national Language for 300 years.

  • The English we know resulted from the combination of French (spoken by leaders) and the Germanic language (spoken by the common people).


Dialects

Dialects

  • Dialect: a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation.

  • Dialects result from isolation and new experiences.


Language3

LANGUAGE

  • Where are English language speakers distributed?

  • Why is English related to other languages?

  • Where are other language families distributed?

  • Why do people preserve local languages?


Language relations

Language relations

Definitions:

  • Language family: a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language (before recorded history).

  • Language branch: a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language (several thousand years ago)

  • Language group: collection of languages within a branch that share common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences.


Language family trees

Language Family Trees


Language

Romance

The Indo-European branch is the most extensively spoken language in the world (3 billion people)


Origins of the indo european family

Origins of the Indo-European Family

  • Uncertain because it would have existed thousands of years before written records. Linguist use similar root words to try to trace back a “Proto-Indo-European” beginning”

  • Diffusion through warfare and conquest

    VS

    Diffusion through peaceful food sharing


Through kurgan conquest

Through Kurgan Conquest?


Through shared successful agricultural practices

Through shared successful agricultural practices?


Over time differences within the indo european family emerged as a result of isolation

Over time differences within the Indo-European Family emerged as a result of isolation


The germanic branch

The Germanic Branch

English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family because the language was spoken by Germanic tribes that invaded England 1,500 years ago


The indo iranian branch

The Indo-Iranian branch

  • The branch with the most speakers

    • Includes more than 100 individual languages, spoken by 1 billion people

Romance


Romance branch

Romance Branch

Evolved from Latin

(spoken by the Romans 2,000 years ago)

Romance


Language

4 most widely used (French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese) developed separately thanks to physical boundaries


Language4

LANGUAGE

  • Where are English language speakers distributed?

  • Why is English related to other languages?

  • Where are other language families distributed?

  • Why do people preserve local languages?


Where are other language families distributed

Where are other language families distributed?


Language5

LANGUAGE

  • Where are English language speakers distributed?

  • Why is English related to other languages?

  • Where are other language families distributed?

  • Why do people preserve local languages?


Why do people preserve local languages

Why do people preserve local languages?

  • Language is intimately linked to the fate of ethnic groups

    • English has flourished at the expense of other ethnic group’s languages

  • Today Difficulties arise because of competing languages, often along the boundaries between languages


Peace through decentralization

Peace through decentralization


The dominance of english

The Dominance of English

  • Lingua franca: a common language if international communication

    • Pidgin: a simplified form of a lingua franca

  • Lingua Franca’s of the past achieved dominance through migration and conquest.

  • Today English diffuses rapidly around the world through the snowball effect because of commerce, ease of travel and changes in technology.


The language of e commerce

The language of e-commerce


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