Urinary Tract Infection In Children. Dr. Alia Al-Ibrahim Consultant Pediatric Nephrology Clinical Assistant Professor. Contents: 1- Definition of UTI 2- Etiology & pathogenesis 3- Predisposing Factors 4- Clinical presentations 5-Investigations 6- Management 7- Complications
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Dr. Alia Al-Ibrahim
Consultant Pediatric Nephrology
Clinical Assistant Professor
1- Definition of UTI
2- Etiology & pathogenesis
3- Predisposing Factors
4- Clinical presentations
8- Special problems in UTI
Presence of bacteria in urine along with symptoms of infection.
5% in Girls 1-2% in Boys
During the 1st yr of life more common in boys, after age of one more in girls
Most common infecting pathogen : Escherichia Coli 80% of UTI.
Other pathogens: - Staphylococcus & Streptococcus Species
- Enterobacteria ( Klebsiella, Proteus, pseudomonas)
- Occasionally Candida albicans
Later : Ascension of bacteria into the Urinary tract.
Development of UTI depend on:
1- Virulence of the invading bacteria.
2- Susceptibility of the host.
1- Conditions lead to urinary stasis : renal calculi, Obstructive Uropathy ,
VUR, & Voiding disorder.
2- Immune deficiency
3- Broad- spectrum antibiotics ( amoxicillin, cephalexin).
5- uncircumcised male
1- Upper UTI (Pyelonephritis).
2- Lower UTI ( Cystitis).
The history & clinical coarse varies with the patient’s age & specific diagnosis.
Urine analysis & dipstick:High index of suspicion for UTI in febrile children particularly those with unexplained fever. Lasts for 2-3days;
4- Renal insufficiency.
Two or more UTIs over a six –months period.
Causes: Inadequate treatment.
unrecognized site of bacterial persistence such as small infected
calculus or un recognized anatomic abnormality.
Abnormal backwash of urine into ureter or kidney
Radiological evaluation VCUG, Isotope cystogrm