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Internet & Security. Information Systems Today Jessup & Valacich, Chapter.6 . How the Internet Works – Web Addresses & Domains. Domain Identifies the Website (host) Comes in many suffixes such as: .edu(educational institutions) .org (organizations; non-profit) .mil (military)

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Internet security

Internet & Security

Information Systems Today

Jessup & Valacich, Chapter.6


How the internet works web addresses domains

How the Internet Works – Web Addresses & Domains

  • Domain

  • Identifies the Website (host)

  • Comes in many suffixes such as:

    • .edu(educational institutions)

    • .org (organizations; non-profit)

    • .mil (military)

    • .net (network organizations)

  • Example: microsoft.com

  • IP Address

  • Each domain is associated with one or more IP addresses

  • Format: a 32-bit address written as 4 numbers (from 0-255) separated by periods

  • Example: 1.160.10.240

  • (URL) Uniform Resource Locator

  • Identifies particular Web pages within a domain

  • Example: http://www.microsoft.com/security/default.mspx


How the internet works managing the internet

How the Internet Works – Managing the Internet

  • Domain Name System (DNS)

  • Maintained by the Internet Registry

  • Used to associate hosts or domains with IP addresses

  • InterNic Registration Service

  • Assigns Internet Domains and IP addresses

  • Internet Corp. for Assigned Names and Number (ICANN) has responsibility for managing IP Addresses, domain names, and root server system management


World wide web

World Wide Web

  • Hypertext:

  • A Web page stored on a Web server

  • Contains information and links to other related information (hyperlinks)

  • HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

  • A standard method used to specify the format of Web pages

  • Uses codes/tags which stipulate how the content should appear to the user

  • Web Browser

  • A software program used to locate and display Web pages

  • Includes text, graphics, and multimedia content


World wide web1

World Wide Web

  • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

  • A protocol used to process user requests for displaying Web pages from a Web server

  • Web Servers

  • A special computer that is specifically designed to store and “serve up” Web pages

  • This machine contains special hardware and software to perform its many specialized functions


How the internet works packet switching

How the Internet Works – Packet Switching

  • Packet Switching

  • Allows millions of users to send large and small chucksof data across the Internet concurrently

  • Based on the concept of turn taking, packets from each user are alternated in the shared network (below)

  • Networks connected to the Internet use this concept


How the internet works tcp ip routers

How the Internet Works – TCP/IP & Routers

  • TCP – Transmission Control Protocol

  • Breaks information into small chucks called data packets

  • Manages the transfer of the packets from computer to computer

  • Reassembles data packets into a message at the destination

  • IP – Internet Protocol

  • Controls how data packets are formed

  • Addresses each packet with the source and destination address

  • A data packet conforming to the IP spec is called an IP datagram

  • Routers

  • Connect one network to another

  • Identify each device on a network as unique using IP protocol

  • Serve as the “Traffic Cop” directing packets to their destination


Internet security

Example: Sending a message from Computer A to D

(Router)

Reads IP Address of packet, routes message to Network 2 and Computer D

(Computer A)

TCP - Breaks message

into data packets

IP - Adds address of

destination Computer D

(Computer D)

TCP - Checks

for missing packets,

reassembles message,

discards duplicate

packets


Information system security

Information System Security

IS Security

Precautions taken to keep all aspects of information systems safe from unauthorized use access

  • Managerial Methods

  • Several techniques are commonly used to manage information systems security:

    • Risk Assessment

    • Controlling Access

    • Organizational Policies and Procedures

    • Backups and Recovery

Security Resources

A number of organizations exist to raise awareness, research, develop standards, and advise on solutions for Internet security (e.g. CERT/CC, CSD, CSIT)


Information system security managerial techniques

Information System Security – Managerial Techniques

  • Assessing Risk

  • Security Audit identifies all aspects of information systems and business processes that use them

  • Risk Analysis assesses the value of assets being protected

  • Alternatives based on Risk Analysis:

    • Risk Reduction – implementing active counter measures to protect systems (e.g. firewalls)

    • Risk Acceptance – implementing no counter measures

    • Risk Transference – transferring risk…buying insurance

  • Controlling Access

  • Keeping information safe by only allowing access to those that require it to do their jobs

  • Authentication – verifying identity before granting access (e.g. passwords)

  • Access Control – Granting access to only those system areas where the user is authorized (e.g. accounting)


Information system security managerial techniques1

Information System Security – Managerial Techniques

  • Organizational Policies and Procedures

  • Acceptable Use Policies – formally document how systems should be used, for what, and penalties for non-compliance

  • Backups and Disaster Recovery

  • Backups – taking periodic snapshots of critical systems data and storing in a safe place or system (e.g. backup tape)

  • Disaster Recovery Plans – spell out detailed procedures to be used by the organization to restore access to critical business systems (e.g. viruses or fire)

  • Disaster Recovery – executing Disaster Recovery procedures using backups to restore the system to the last backup if it was totally lost


State of is security security threats technologies

State of IS Security - Security Threats & Technologies

  • Security Threats

  • Today we hear about many security breaches that affect organizations and individuals. Some recently in the news:

  • Identity Theft – gaining access to some ones personal information allowing them to imitate you (stolen laptop)

  • Denial of Service – attacks on websites using zombie computers that overwhelm the site and shuts it down

  • Others: Spyware, Spam, Wireless Access, Viruses

  • Security Technologies

  • Companies and research organizations continue to develop and refine technologies to prevent security breaches. Some Include:

  • Firewalls

  • Biometrics

  • VPN and Encryption


Is security technology

IS Security: Technology

Firewalls

A system of software, hardware or both designed to detect intrusion and prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network

  • Firewall Techniques

  • Packet Filter – examine each packet entering and leaving network and accept/reject based on rules

  • Application Level Control – Performs certain security measures based on a specific application (e.g. file transfer)

  • Keyword based filtering

  • Destination (URL) based filtering

    • Certain URLs not permitted (OR)

    • Certain URLs only are permitted


Security threat spyware spam and cookies

Security Threat: Spyware, Spam, and Cookies

  • Spyware

  • Any software that covertly gathers information about a user through an Internet connection without the users knowledge

  • Problems: uses memory resources, uses bandwidth, and can cause system instability

  • Prevention: Firewalls and Spyware software

  • Spam

  • Electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings usually for purpose of advertising for some product and/or service

  • Problems: nuisance, wastes time deleting, uses storage

  • Prevention: Spam Blocker software

  • Cookies

  • A message passed to a browser from a Web server. Used by legitimate programs to store state and user information

  • Problems: can be used to track user activities

  • Prevention: browser settings, firewall


Security technology biometrics

Security Technology: Biometrics

  • Biometrics

  • A sophisticated authentication technique used to restrict access to systems, data and/or facilities

  • Uses biological characteristics to identify individuals such as fingerprints, retinal patterns in the eye, etc. that are not easily counterfeited

  • Has great promise in providing high security


Security threat access to wireless

Security Threat: Access to Wireless

  • Unauthorized Access to Wireless Networks

  • With the prevalence in use of wireless networks this threat is increasing

  • Problems - Drive-by hacking an attacker accesses the network, intercepts data from it, and can use network services and/or sends attack instructions without entering the building

  • Prevention - Encryption between network and user devices


Security technology vpn and encryption

Security Technology: VPN and Encryption

  • VPN (Virtual Private Network)

  • Called a secure tunnel

  • Dynamically generated network connection to connect users or nodes

  • This approach uses both authentication and encryption

  • Used extensively for remote access by employees

  • Encryption

  • The process of encoding messages before they enter the network or airwaves, and then decoding at the receiving end

  • Public Key - known and used to scramble messages (SSL)

  • Private Key - not known and used by receiver to descramble

  • Certificate Authority – a third party that issues keys


How encryption works

How Encryption Works


Security threat viruses

Security Threat: Viruses

Viruses

Programs that can attack a computer and/or a network and delete information, disable software, use up all system resources, etc.

Prevention Steps:

AntiVirus software: install this software which is designed to block all known viruses and offers automatic or manual updates to virus patterns to block future viruses

No Disk Sharing – Viruses can be transferred to clean computers by inserting disks containing infected files

Delete Suspicious Email Messages – Do not open suspicious e-mail messages…Delete Only!

Report Viruses – If you get a virus, report it to you network administrator immediately!


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