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Leipzig Graduate School for Clouds, Aerosol & Radiation: Mineral Dust. A. Macke, IfT Leipzig presented by H. Herrmann, IfT Leipzig. Berlin, 23.09.2011. Leipzig Graduate School. A Leibniz Graduate School on Atmospheric Research

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Leipzig Graduate School for Clouds, Aerosol & Radiation: Mineral Dust

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Leipzig graduate school for clouds aerosol radiation mineral dust

Leipzig Graduate School for Clouds, Aerosol & Radiation:

Mineral Dust

A. Macke, IfT Leipzig

presentedby H. Herrmann, IfT Leipzig

Berlin, 23.09.2011


Leipzig graduate school

Leipzig Graduate School

  • A Leibniz Graduate School on Atmospheric Research

  • Integratingexpertise in atmosphericresearch in Leipzig atthe University andthe IfT togetherwith University expertisefromphysicsandchemistry

  • University partners:

    • Leipzig Meteorology (LIM)

    • Profs. Haase and Grundmann (PhysicsFaculty)

    • Prof. Abel (Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Faculty)

  • Leibniz Partner:

    • IfT Leipzig with all itsthreedepartments

  • Combiningstructuredandcross-compartimentalPh.D. educationwithresearchat a frontlineatmosphericsciencestopic – mineraldust


  • The research why care about mineral dust

    The research: Why care about mineral dust ?

    • Atmosphere

      • radiation

      • watercycle

      • chemistry

    • Health

      • airquality, bacteria

    • Economy

      • transportation

      • solar energy

    • Climate

      • desertification

    • Fertilization

      • ocean & land


    The leipzig graduate school

    The Leipzig Graduate School

    Topic

    Leipzig University Research Groups

    Solid State Physics

    (Haase, Grundmann)

    Microwave Remote Sensing

    (Pospichal)

    Clouds &

    Radiation

    (Wendisch)

    Physical

    Chemistry

    (Abel)

    Global Modelling

    (Quaas)

    IfT Research Groups

    Regional Modelling

    (Tegen)

    Vis & IR Remote

    Sensing (Ansmann,Deneke)

    Cloud

    Laboratory

    (Stratmann)

    Clouds &

    Radiation

    (Macke)

    Multiphase Chemistry

    (Herrmann)

    Projects

    Dust Surface Chemistry

    Dust and Ice Formation

    Cloud and Dust Particle Interaction

    Non-spherical Dust

    Absorbing Dust


    Polarization in radiative transfer in modeling and observations

    Polarization in radiative transfer in modeling and observations

    • Non-spherical (mineral dust, vulcanic ash, ice crystals, ...) particles polarize light in a characteristic manner

    • Active/passive polarized remote sensing offers new and largely unexplored detection possibilities

    • Objectives

      • Heterogeneous ice formation (mandatory condition for precipitation in mid latitudes)

      • determine volcanic ash concentration

      • determine the effect of Saharan mineral dust on cloud formation and microphysics over the Atlantic Ocean

      • distinguish mineral dust from biomass burning and other aerosols


    Polarization lidar

    PolarizationLidar

    4 Feb 2008, SAMUM 2, Cape Verde

    depolarizationratio:

    liquid water0.0

    ice0.4-0.6

    mineraldust0.3

    biomassburning

    aerosol0.02

    marine particles0.01

    Time (UTC = Local Time)


    Leipzig graduate school for clouds aerosol radiation mineral dust

    Absorbing Aerosols: Effect on atmospheric dynamics and cloud properties

    • Absorbing aerosol (soot, mineral dust) affects climate by heating the atmosphere, changing cloudiness and circulation

    • Net effect strongly depends on vertical placement of aerosol layers; it is expected to be warming but offsetting effects exist

    • Objectives

      • Quantification of aerosol absorption (including mineral dust as natural background) in climate models

      • Characterization of altitude and placement of aerosol layers with respect to clouds

      • Assessment of climate effects by aerosol-climate modeling


    Satellite data analysis a train anthropogenic absorbing aerosol forcing

    Satellitedataanalysis (A-Train): Anthropogenicabsorbingaerosolforcing

    Albedoenhancement

    Albedo reduction

    [Wm-2]

    Seasonal mean TOA absorption effect

    Peters, Quaas, Bellouin, ACP 2011

    Brightnesseffectedbyabsorbingaerosols

    regional to global distribution


    Indirect aerosol effect diagnostics from combination of ground and satellite data

    Indirect aerosol effect: diagnostics from combination of ground and satellite data

    • Amount in type of aerosol particles effect size and concentration of cloud droplets and thus cloud brightness (first indirect aerosol effect, Twomey effect)

    • Passive satellite measurements of cloud particles and cloud brightness very indirect and uncertain

    • Increasing load of mineral particles from various sources

    • Objectives

      • Combine active and passive ground and satellite based observations to more accurately determine the indirect aerosol effect

      • Identify and analyze situations with mineral dust advection over measurement site Leipzig


    Cloud radiative effects

    Cloudradiativeeffects

    illustrative

    example:

    ship tracks


    Heterogeneous chemistry at modified mineral dust surfaces

    Heterogeneous chemistry at (modified) mineral dust surfaces

    • Mineral Dust is an active player in atmospheric composition change

    • Trace gases can be taken up at the surface and undergo chemical change

    • Key components of mineral dust are suspected to be photocatalysts: surface-bound OH available (!)

    • Objectives

      • Investigate uptake of key atmospheric tracegases (NOx, SO2, Organics) und realistic conditions (T, RH)

      • Study chemical processing directly

      • Deliver key process parameters (Reaction rates, uptake and mass accommodation coefficients)


    Knudsen cell ift chemistry

    Knudsen Cell – IfT Chemistry

    Pressure: 10-5bis 10-3 mbar = mean free pathlength of molecules is bigger than the cell dimension = there are mainly gas-surface collisions rather than gas-gas collisions

    Determination of (reactive) uptake-coefficients γ

    Rate constants

    Detection limit: 1010molec cm-3

    T Range: -140 bis 425 °C

    Movablestamp

    Gas inlet

    Toanalytics

    Sample holder

    Equipwithilluminationoftargettostudyheterogeneousphotochemicalreactions


    Leipzig graduate school for clouds aerosol radiation mineral dust

    Physical Chemistry – Abel: Detectionandchemicalinvestigationoftroposphericparticlesandofreactionsneartheirinterfaces

    • AFM on mineralparticles, togetherwithlocal Raman spektroscopy (TERS). Withthismethod, chemicalconversions on nano-particles (and on nano-particlescoatedwithice) canbeinvestigated

    • Röntgen microscopyat BESSY

    • Photoelectronspektroscopy(ESCA) tofollowreactions in a time-resovedmanner on wetmineralnanoparticlesembeddedinto a microwaterjet (forthestudyofreactionsnearthewater-interface) or on solid interfacesandsurfaces.

    • Measuringthekineticsofchemicalreactionswith/withoutthepresenceofmineralicnanoparticlesby time-resolvedspectrocopicmethod in a Laval nozzleexperiment (alternativelybydispersionbyultrasound)


    Mass spectrometry imaging msi und chemische analyse von nanoteilchen

    MassSpectrometry Imaging (MSI) und chemische Analyse von Nanoteilchen


    Heterogeneous ice nucleation and solid state physics

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation and solid state physics

    • Heterogeneous ice nucleation at mineral dust particles is one of the most important ice formation processes in the atmosphere

    • Heterogeneous ice formation not well understood because

      • of the insufficiency of existing techniques concerning the in-situ observation of ice nucleation processes

      • the distinction between ice and water on micrometer scales, as well as mass, and mass growth measurements are not possible

    • Objectives

      • Adapt a temporally high resolution Streak camera to directly infer ice formation and growth for individual drops and defined ice nuclei (dust particles)

      • Establish the nuclear magnetic resonance technique to determine ice mass


    Leipzig aerosol cloud interaction simulator lacis

    Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS)

    NMR spectra for

    water and ice

    Streak

    Camera


    Leipzig graduate school cross cutting connectivity

    Leipzig Graduate School crosscutting / connectivity


    Leipzig graduate school structure

    Leipzig Graduate School Structure

    • Accompanying lectures from Master modules in Meteorology, Chemistry, Solid State Physics

    • Ring-lecture of supervisors on recent research results

    • Supervisor team for each PhD student

    • Active participation in relevant international conferences and summer schools

    • Workshops jointly with supervisor teams

    • PhD-only workshop, Supervisor-only workshop

    • Participation in IfT/LIM PhD seminar

    • 3 month visit at specified guest institutes

    • Participation in “Research Academy Leipzig”

    • Family- and dual-career friendly work conditions


    Leipzig long term perspectives

    Leipzig longtermperspectives

    • Establish the “Leipzig Center for Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation”

    • Open paths for joint University-Leibniz Research & Teaching

      • Share laboratories

      • Combine knowledge

      • create Leibniz/university supervisor teams

    • Follow-Up Graduate School on “Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation” with new focus

    • Basis for a Leibniz-Campus jointly with Leipzig University


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