Mating systems
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Mating Systems. Mating System. Species typical pattern of mate-finding, reproduction and parenting of offspring. Kinds of mating systems. Number of females. Number of males. Monogamy. Polygyny. Polygamous. Polygynandry. Polyandry. Kinds of mating systems. Monogamous Mating Systems.

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Mating Systems

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Mating systems

Mating Systems


Mating system

Mating System

Species typical pattern of mate-finding, reproduction and parenting of offspring


Kinds of mating systems

Kinds of mating systems

Number of females

Number of males

Monogamy

Polygyny

Polygamous

Polygynandry

Polyandry


Kinds of mating systems1

Kinds of mating systems

Monogamous Mating Systems

-a mating system in which one male and one female for and mate with only each other during a given breeding season

To put it another way

-neither sex is able to monopolize more than one member of the opposite sex


Kinds of mating systems2

Kinds of mating systems

Monogamous Mating Systems

First question - why should a male be monogamous?

If the particular niche dictates that a male will do better reproductively staying with one mate - will do so.

  • mates are scarce

  • resources are scarce or non-defendable


Kinds of mating systems3

Kinds of mating systems

Monogamous Mating Systems

1. Mate assistance hypothesis

-male stays with one female because it is to his advantage to help raise offspring

Hippocampus whitei

-male carries offspring

-brood pouch contains 1 clutch

-no point to new matings


Kinds of mating systems4

Kinds of mating systems

Monogamous Mating Systems

2. Mate guarding hypothesis

-male spends time with mate to ensure fertilization

Assumes

Females are scarce (highly male-biased OSR)

Females will mate multiply

Hymenocera elegans

  • male stays with female for weeks

  • female receptive every 3 weeks


Kinds of mating systems5

Kinds of mating systems

Monogamous Mating Systems

3. Female-enforced monogamy

-female blocks polygamous moves by mate

Icteria virens (yellow-breasted chat)- aggression by females

More aggressive

0

Less aggressive

Toward Toward Toward

males females wrens


Kinds of mating systems6

Kinds of mating systems

Monogamous Mating Systems

3. Female-enforced monogamy

-female blocks polygamous moves by mate

Burying beetle – Nicophorus defodiens


Kinds of mating systems7

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

1. Polygyny - males mate with several females

a. Female Defense Polygyny

-females live in permanent groups that males defend

Male


Kinds of mating systems8

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

1. Polygyny - males mate with several females

a. Female Defense Polygyny

-females live in permanent groups that males defend

Yellow-bellied marmot


Kinds of mating systems9

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

1. Polygyny - male mate with several females

b. Resource Defence Polygyny

- males defend resource females need

Lamprologus -males gather and defend oviposition sites - mollusc shells


Kinds of mating systems10

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

1. Polygyny - male mate with several females

c. Lek Polygyny

- males compete for high rank


Kinds of mating systems11

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

1. Polygyny - male mate with several females

c. Lek Polygyny

- males compete for high rank

Upper limit on lek effectiveness

Mating

rate

10

0

Lek size


Kinds of mating systems12

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

1. Polygyny - male mate with several females

c. Lek Polygyny

Hypotheses for the formation of leks

1. Hotspot Hypothesis

2. Hotshot Hypothesis

3. Female Preference Hypothesis


Kinds of mating systems13

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

1. Polygyny - male mate with several females

d. Scramble competition

-females are available for a short period

-males mate with as many as possible


Kinds of mating systems14

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

Polygamous

Polygyny

a. Female Defence Polygyny

Male controls access

to resources

b. Resource Defence Polygyny

c. Lek Polygyny

Male can’t control access to resources

d. Scramble Competition


Kinds of mating systems15

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

2. Polyandry - one female mates with several males

Jacana

Male

territories

Female

territory


Kinds of mating systems16

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

2. Polyandry - one female mates with several males

Kinds of Polyandry

1. Sperm replenishment

-females mate multiply to get extra sperm

e.g. Drosophila

1 mate

Multiple mates

# of eggs

Time


Kinds of mating systems17

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

2. Polyandry - one female mates with several males

Kinds of Polyandry

1. Sperm replenishment

2. Prostitution - females mate with males to get access to resources

3. Resource Defense - females control access to resources

4. Lek Polyandry - females compete for dominance

- some primate troops


Mating systems

Kinds of mating systems

Polygamous Mating Systems

2. Polyandry - one female mates with several males

Genetic Benefits of Polyandry

1. Egg fertilization insurance via acquisition of sufficient numbers of competent sperm.

2. Better sperm with genes acquired from preferred sexual partners.

3. Genetic variety gained via acquisition of genetically diverse sperm.

Material Benefits of Polyandry

1. Acquisition of resources controlled by mating partners.

2. Acquisition of parental care from mating partners.

3. Improved foraging success via distraction of a male foraging competitor.

4. Reduced risk of sexual harassment form non-partners.


Mating systems

Polyandry – do the data support the hypothesized benefits?

  • Egg fertilization insurance via acquisition of sufficient numbers of competent sperm.

Prairie dogs


Mating systems

Polyandry – do the data support the hypothesized benefits?

3. Genetic variety gained via acquisition of genetically diverse sperm.

Yellow-toothed cavy


Kinds of mating systems18

Kinds of mating systems

Are mating systems ‘fixed’?

- do all members of a species conform to one mating system

How monogamous is monogamy?

Indigo bunting

Within pair

Extra-pair

0

12

Days before egglaying


Kinds of mating systems19

Kinds of mating systems

Are mating systems ‘fixed’?

- do all members of a species conform to one mating system

How monogamous is monogamy?

Indigo bunting

Rate of extra pair copulation - 27 - 76%


Kinds of mating systems20

Kinds of mating systems

What are females gaining in extra-pair copulations?

Agelaius phoeniceus

100

50

0

% of broods with EPC nestlings

199019911992


Kinds of mating systems21

Kinds of mating systems

Are mating systems ‘fixed’?

- do all members of a species conform to one mating system

How monogamous is monogamy?

Humans

U.S.-10 - 18%

Yanomama - 9%

!Kung - 2 - 3%


Summary

Summary

Mating Systems

Monogamous

1. Mate assistance hypothesis

Polygamous

Polygyny

2. Mate guarding hypothesis

a. Female Defence Polygyny

3. Female-enforced monogamy

b. Resource Defence Polygyny

c. Lek Polygyny

d. Scramble Competition

2. Polyandry

a. Sperm replenishment

b. Prostitution

c. Resource Defence

d. Lek


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