Unit 4
Download
1 / 52

Unit 4 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 127 Views
  • Uploaded on

Unit 4. Reproduction. Chapter 4. The Nucleus Controls the Functions of Life. The Nucleus Controls the Functions of Life. Think of how the workers at the Confederation Building control NL. All of the plans (DNA) for NL are kept there. The nucleus controls the life of a cell.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Unit 4' - cira


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Unit 4
Unit 4

  • Reproduction


Chapter 4
Chapter 4

  • The Nucleus Controls the Functions of Life


The nucleus controls the functions of life
The Nucleus Controls the Functions of Life

  • Think of how the workers at the Confederation Building control NL.

  • All of the plans (DNA) for NL are kept there.


The nucleus controls the life of a cell
The nucleus controls the life of a cell

  • Nerve cells, for example, are controlled by its nucleus.

  • The nucleus sends out messages to the rest of the cell, allowing the cell to perform activities such as obtaining nutrients, turning these nutrients into energy, growing, reproducing and getting rid of waste.


4 1 the function of the nucleus within the cell
4.1The Function of the Nucleus within the Cell

  • The nucleus controls the functions of a living cell.

  • DNA in the nucleus carry the master set of instructions for cell function.


Traits
Traits

  • The color of your eyes, the pitch of your voice, and the size of your nose are all traits that are passed on to you by yours biological parents

  • A trait is a particular feature that can vary in size or form from individual to individual within a species


Non pathological do not need to study
Non-pathological (do not need to study)


Pathological do not need to study
Pathological (do not need to study)


Heredity
Heredity

  • Is the process through which patterns of traits are passed on from an individual to its offspring


The nucleus is responsible for heredity
The Nucleus is Responsible for Heredity

  • Cell have many organelles (cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria...)

  • The nucleus is the organelle responsible for heredity and controlling function of the cell.


Understanding check
Understanding Check

  • Give an example of a trait?

  • What is heredity?

  • Where is hereditary information stores?


The nucleus control centre of the cell
The Nucleus: Control Centre of the Cell

  • Every cell in your body has a function.

  • How do cells become retina cells vs. bone cells?

  • The nucleus contains the master set of instructions that determines what each cell will become, how it will function, when it will grow and divide, and when it will die.



Cells
Cells

  • Every cell contains in your body contains all the same information. So the cells in your heart contain the DNA for your whole body. But the cells in your heart just activate and reproduce the cell in your heart. Think of a carpenter who has the blueprints for a house but when he is in the living room he just uses those instruction to work on that room.


The nucleus contains the master instructions that determine
The nucleus contains the master instructions that determine

  • what each cell becomes

  • how it will function

  • when it will grow and divide

  • and when it will die.


Dna carries the master set of instructions for cell function
DNA carries the master set of instructions for cell function

  • Instruction in the nucleus are carried in long, two stranded molecules called DNA.

  • It looks like a twisted ladder.

  • The two strands, or sides, of the DNA ladder wrap around each other in a spiral shape that scientists call a double helix (Greek for “to wrap”)


Dna continued
DNA continued...

  • The sides of the DNA are made of sugar and phosphate

  • The steps are made of four nitrogen bases, which are represented by the letters A (adenine), G (guanine), C (cytosine), and T (thymine)


Arrangement of bases in dna directs all cell activities
Arrangement of bases in DNA directs all cell activities

  • Everything that occurs in a cell is the result of how the bases on the DNA molecule are arranged

  • The arrangement is know as the DNA message

  • DNA bases always join in specific ways

  • A and T

  • G and C


Arrangement of bases in dna directs all cell activities continued
Arrangement of bases in DNA directs all cell activities continued.....

  • The order and number of bases can vary greatly within a DNA molecule.

  • In humans, a single DNA molecule can be several million base pairs in length.


How is dna stored
How is DNA stored?

  • Most of the time it is stored in the nucleus in a loosely coiled form

  • When a cell is growing, the DNA is uncoiled and aids in the making of proteins

  • Protein is essential material needed for the cell to carry out the activities necessary for its survival.


How is dna stored continued
How is DNA stored? Continued ...

  • When a cell is ready to divide, each strand of loosely coiled DNA folds up further into a very compact, X-shaped structure call a chromosome


Every organism has a characteristic number of chromosomes
Every organism has a characteristic number of chromosomes

  • Chromosomes within the nucleus are found in pairs

  • Most humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs

  • 1 pair helps determine gender

  • In males the 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY

  • In females it is XX








Genes most know for their function
Genes – most know for their function

  • Segments of DNA located at a specific place on a chromosome; each contains information to produce proteins

  • What gene scared

    Angelina Jolie?


Genes are found in chromosomes
Genes are Found in Chromosomes

  • Genes are small segments of DNA located at specific places o a chromosome.

  • Genes store the information needed to produce 90,000 to 100,000 different proteins used in the cells of your body


  • Chromosome contains the coded information for thousands of traits.

  • Chromosomes are

    made up of genes.



Proteins determine what body cells become and how they function
Proteins determine what body cells become and how they function

  • Each of your body cells has the same amount of genetic information stores within its 46 chromosomes.

  • However, only specific genes are “read “in each cell to produce specific proteins.

  • By making specific proteins , a cell becomes specialized to carry out a particular function.



Tissue comes together to form organs
Tissue comes together to form organs retinas).

  • Proteins needed to make your muscles work are made on in your muscle.

  • Proteins needed to help you read my notes are made only in your eyes.


Enzymes and hormones
Enzymes and Hormones retinas).

  • Specialized proteins called enzymes speed up hundreds of chemical reaction in cell.

  • Digestive enzymes break down food into nutrients molecules that provide energy for cell

  • Some proteins act as chemical messengers called hormones. Growth hormones function to prepare a cell of division by making sure the ell has enough nutrients to divide.


  • All the information is stored in long molecules called strands of DNA. When one cell breaks into two, it first copies the DNA so that each new cell gets a full copy.

  • On each strand of DNA are hundreds of Genes, each gene controls a particular aspect of you. Like telling if you have blue eyes or brown for example.



4 2 mutations
4.2 new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to Mutations

  • This is a change in the sequence of DNA. If can cause changes in the individual and can be passed down to the next generation.


Mutation can be one of three types
Mutation can be one of three types new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to

  • 1) Silent: Meaning that it did not have an effect on the product of the gene.

  • 2) Negative: Meaning that there was an effect and it somehow made things worse than before the mutation.

  • 3) Positive: Meaning that there was an effect but it made things better than they were before.


Positive mutation
Positive Mutation new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to

  • A few individuals have been found to be resistant to the HIV virus and therefore, to AIDS


Positive mutation cont
Positive Mutation cont... new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to

  • Some plants have developed resistance to bacterial and fungal infections.

  • Positive mutations create proteins that are beneficial to the plant and protect them from disease-causing invaders.


Negative mutation sickle cell anemia
Negative Mutation new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to – Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Negative mutations reduce the probability that organisms will produce offspring or survive in their environment.

  • Substitution of base A for base T can cause hemoglobin to take on a different shape

  • Abnormal shaped molecules cannot carry oxygen efficiently.


Negative mutation sickle cell anemia cont
Negative Mutation new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to – Sickle Cell Anemia cont...

  • Abnormal shaped molecules block blood flow, causing pain and often organ damage since blood carrying nutrients cannon reach organs such as the lungs, liver and kidneys.


Negative mutation cystic fibrosis
Negative Mutation – Cystic Fibrosis new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to

  • It is another genetic disease caused by mutation

  • It can be caused by more than 1300 different mutations in one gene

  • Mucus builds up because the protein that normally functions to transport chloride ions into and out of the cell is not made correctly.


Negative mutation cystic fibrosis1
Negative Mutation – Cystic Fibrosis new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to

  • This causes respiratory problems


Neutral mutation
Neutral Mutation new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to

  • A substitution of one base for another base DNA sequence may not change an organism (misspelled word does not change a sentence)

  • The same protein will be made and may still function normally

  • The change does not effect survival rate of organism


Let us look at a comparison for dna
Let us look at a new individual. Half of the DNA comes from each of the two cells to comparison for DNA


ad