Introduction to Vertebrates. Vertebrate Vocabulary Chapters 32 -35 Chordate vertebrate vertebra (712) agnathan (714) ectothermic (724) endothermic (724) primate (731) fish list the major characteristics of these animals amphibianlist the major characteristics of these animals
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Introduction to Vertebrates
The first vertebrates
the jawless fish: agnathans,
the cartilaginous fishes: Chondrichthyes,
and the bony fishes:
The first group of vertebrates to live on land were the amphibians,
which appeared about 370 million years ago.
1. Legs. Legs support the body’s weight as well as allow movement from place to place.
2. Lungs. On land, lungs carry out gas exchange.
3. Heart. Land animals tend to have higher metabolic rates than aquatic animals. The structure of the vertebrate heart allows oxygen to be delivered to the body efficiently.
1. Legs. The evolution of legs was an important adaptation for living on land. Frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts have four legs. Caecilians lost their legs during the evolutionary course of adapting to a burrowing existence.
The heterophil is the second most numerous WBC in most birds. Heterophils are phagocytic and use their enzyme-containing granules to lyse ingested materials. Heterophils are motile and can leave blood vessels to engulf foreign materials.
. Placental mammals develop within their mother’s body and are nourished by an organ called the placenta.
1. Grasping hands and feet
2. Forward orientation of the eyes
5. An example of a cartilaginous fish is
6. What is the name of a jawless fish?
7. What is the first group of vertebrates to move on to land?
8. What does the word amphibian mean?
9. What are the two adaptations reptiles have and amphibians do not have to help them live on land?
10. Why do birds need hollow bones?
11. Birds evolved from reptiles but have what, that makes them different? feathers
15. List the vertebrates that are ectotherms.
16. What does endotherm mean?
31. What structure in the fish helped the fish detect vibrations in the water?