The halogens
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 15

The Halogens PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 113 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Halogens. Group VII. Group VII. Known as halogens Derived from Greek, Salt maker React with metals to form salts Astatine doesn’t really exist for a long enough time to explore its chemistry we predict its reactions by observing trends. At RTP. Fluorine Pale yellow gas Chlorine

Download Presentation

The Halogens

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The halogens

The Halogens

Group VII


Group vii

Group VII

  • Known as halogens

    • Derived from Greek, Salt maker

    • React with metals to form salts

  • Astatine doesn’t really exist for a long enough time to explore its chemistry

    • we predict its reactions by observing trends


At rtp

At RTP

  • Fluorine

    • Pale yellow gas

  • Chlorine

    • Pale green gas

    • Bleaches damp litmus

  • Bromine

    • Brown Liquid (evaporates easily to a brown gas)

    • Does nasty things to skin!

  • Iodine

    • Dark grey / black crystals

    • Sublimes to a violet vapour on gentle heating


Properties

Properties

  • Electron configuration

    • 5 p electrons.

  • Atomic Radius

    • Increases down the group

  • Ionic radius

    • Increases down the group

  • First Ionisation energy

    • Decreases down group

  • First Electron Affinity

    • Decreases down group

  • Electronegativity.

    • Decreases from F - I


Compounds

Compounds

  • Solubility

    • Chlorine and Bromine are fairly soluble in water

    • They react reversibly

    • Cl2 +H2O  HCl + HOCl

    • Aqueous solutions are called Chlorine or Bromine water

    • Chlorine water is (just about) pale green

    • Bromine water is orangey brown – red

    • Iodine is only slightly soluble in water

    • Halogens are much more soluble in hexane.


Bonding in halogens

Bonding in halogens

  • Ionic Bonding

    • All the Halogens form X- ions

    • With group I & II

      • Ionic bonding

    • With group III

      • Aluminium fluoride

        • Ionic

      • Aluminium chloride varies depending on whether it is anhydrous or not.

    • With d-block metals

      • Covelant when anhydrous

      • Ionic with water.


Bonding in halogens1

Bonding in halogens

  • Covalent Bonding

    • Polar covalent bonds with almost all non metals

    • Fluorine is always in the -1 oxidation state

    • Chlorine is in the -1 oxidation state unless bonded with fluorine or oxygen

  • Halogens other than fluorine have empty d-orbitals so it is possible to promote electrons from the p-orbital into the energetically similar d-orbital

  • This allows more than one covalent bond to be formed.

    • This only happens when bonded to a small very electronegative atom such as oxygen.


Reactions of the halogens

Reactions of the Halogens

  • Reactions with Metals


Reactions of the halogens1

Reactions of the Halogens

  • Reactions with phosphorus


Reactions of the halogens2

Reactions of the Halogens

  • Reactions with solutions of other halides


Reactions of the halogens3

Reactions of the Halogens

  • Reactions with water


Reactions of the halogens4

Reactions of the Halogens

  • Reactions with alkali


Reactions of the halogens5

Reactions of the Halogens

  • Reactions with reducing agents


Reactions of the halogens6

Reactions of the Halogens

  • Reactions with sodium thiosulphate


Hydrogen halides

Hydrogen Halides


  • Login