EUH4282 Review for Final. From Détente to Dissolution of European communism. Demise of Khrushchev and the rise of Brezhnev. Cooling off period in space race and nuclear arms race (Partial test ban treaty, 1963, Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, 1968, etc.) SALT I-II, 1972-
From Détente to Dissolution of European communism.
Third world national liberation movements in Africa and elsewhere (Angola, Mozambique, etc.)
Regime changes: Reagan, Thatcher and Cold War warriors in the west. Brezhnev and successors until 1985.
Gorbachev’s rise to power and international prominence (glasnost and perestroika become the watchwords of Soviet communism)
Communist regimes challenged peacefully by trade unions, samizdat, and reformers in Poland (Solidarity), East Germany (Neues Forum), Czechoslovakia (Charter 77/Civic Forum), and Hungary (Pozsgay)
Role of economics: standard of living, shortages of food/fuel/consumer products, communist system’s failure to sustain economic prosperity (structural impediments of a command economy to reform and modification.)
Did communism fail in Europe because the Soviet Union was unable to keep up with the Western (US) powers? ( E.g., space race, missile technology/production, etc.)
"What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such... That is, the end point of mankind\'s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.“
Francis Fukuyama, Johns Hopkins UniversityThe meaning of the Cold War