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EUH4282 Review for Final. From Détente to Dissolution of European communism. Demise of Khrushchev and the rise of Brezhnev. Cooling off period in space race and nuclear arms race (Partial test ban treaty, 1963, Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, 1968, etc.) SALT I-II, 1972-

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Euh4282 review for final

EUH4282 Review for Final

From Détente to Dissolution of European communism.


Post cuban missile crisis

  • Demise of Khrushchev and the rise of Brezhnev.

  • Cooling off period in space race and nuclear arms race (Partial test ban treaty, 1963, Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, 1968, etc.)

  • SALT I-II, 1972-

  • “Trilaterialism”:- Nixon trip to China and Soviet Union

Post Cuban missile crisis


D tente era cont

Détente era, cont.


Reasons why d tente ends

Reasons why Détente ends


D tente cont

  • Regime elsewhere (Angola, Mozambique, etc.)changes: Reagan, Thatcher and Cold War warriors in the west. Brezhnev and successors until 1985.

  • Reagan/Thatcher (“Iron Lady”) on the offensive: Argentina, Grenada, Contras, SDI…

  • Neutron Bomb and basing of Intermediate range missiles in Europe (SS 20s)

Détente, cont.


D tente cont1

Détente, cont.


Second cold war ends 1986

Second Cold War ends, 1986-


End of cold war

End of Cold War


Revolutions of 1989

  • Communist regimes challenged peacefully by trade unions, samizdat, and reformers in Poland (Solidarity), East Germany (Neues Forum), Czechoslovakia (Charter 77/Civic Forum), and Hungary (Pozsgay)

  • Opening of borders (Hungary) and winning of free elections (Poland) pave way to Berlin drama in November, 1989.

Revolutions of 1989


What brought people out on the streets in 1989

  • Role of economics: standard of living, shortages of food/fuel/consumer products, communist system’s failure to sustain economic prosperity (structural impediments of a command economy to reform and modification.)

  • Revolution of the intellectuals? Street demonstrations and economically-motivated strikes brought pressures against the existing rulers. But it was the intellectuals who formulated the political ideology for revolution.

What brought people out on the streets in 1989?


Forces of revolutionary change

  • What were the ideological messages being promoted by these leaders?

  • Liberalism – freedom of speech, national self-determination, choice in the public (politics) and private (religion) arenas, autonomy in the marketplace.

  • To what extent were these wants/desires compatible with socialist ideals? (“Socialism with a human face…”)

Forces of revolutionary change


Internal contradictions of soviet style communism

  • Failure of the communist vision of present, past, and future.

  • Teleological understanding of historical processes: one stage leads to another until the end of history is reached: classless society/communism.

  • Challenging this utopian vision was the materialist world of capitalism/consumerism.

Internal Contradictions of Soviet-style communism


External forces

External forces


The meaning of the cold war

  • "What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.“

    Francis Fukuyama, Johns Hopkins University

The meaning of the Cold War


Who won the cold war and why
Who won the Cold War and Why? War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.“


Who won the cold war and why1

  • Role of economics War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such... That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.“

  • Role of ideology (intellectuals, writings)

  • Role of politicians (Reagan, Gorbachev, Brandt, De Gaulle)

  • Communism vs. Capitalism: a winner take all contest?

Who won the Cold War and why?


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