Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e
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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e. Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst. Motivation and Emotion Chapter. Motivation Concepts and Theories. Motivation—factors within and outside an organism that cause it to behave a certain way at a certain time

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Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior 2e

Charles T. Blair-Broeker

Randal M. Ernst


Motivation and emotion chapter

Motivation and Emotion Chapter


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Motivation Concepts and Theories

  • Motivation—factors within and outside an organism that cause it to behave a certain way at a certain time

  • Drive—an internal condition or impulse that activates behavior to reduce a need and restore homeostasis

  • Incentive—external goal that “pulls” or “pushes” behavior


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Theories of Motivation

  • Instinct—motives are innate

  • Drive—biological needs as motivation

  • Incentive—extrinsic things push or pull behavior

  • Arousal—people are motivated to maintain optimum level of arousal

  • Humanistic—hierarchy of needs


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Drives as Tissue Needs

  • Homeostasis—the constancy of internal conditions that the body must actively maintain

  • Drives may be due to an upset in homeostasis, inducing behavior to correct the imbalance

  • Animals do behave in accordance with their tissue needs (e.g., increasing or decreasing caloric intake, drive for salt)

  • However, homeostasis cannot explain all drives


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Cerebral cortex

Hypothalamus

Portion of

limbic system

Pituitary

gland

Brainstem

Drives as States of the Brain

  • The hub of many central drive systems lies in the hypothalamus


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus

Hunger Drive

  • Two areas of the hypothalamus, the lateral and ventromedial areas, play a central role in the hunger drive


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus

Lateral Area

  • However, chemical lesions to specific cell bodies reduce hunger drive as well as general arousal


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus

Ventromedial Area

  • Lesions alter digestive and metabolic processes

  • Food is converted into fat rather than energy molecules, causing animal to eat much more than normal and gain weight


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Hunger Drive

  • Other stimuli that act on the brain to increase or decrease hunger include

    • satiety signals from the stomach (CCK)

    • signals indicating the amount of food molecules in the blood (insulin)

    • leptin, a hormone indicating the amount of fat in the body

    • internals vs. externals


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Research on Weight Regulation and Dieting

  • No consistent personality trait differences found between obese and non-obese people (e.g., willpower, anxiety)

  • Dieters and obese are more likely to eat in response to stress than non-dieters

  • Family environment of little importance in determining body weight; genetics plays a large role

  • Number of fat-storage cells is a major determinant of body weight


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Fat cells

Normal

diet

High-fat

diet

Return to

normal diet

Research on Weight Regulation and Dieting

  • Fat cells are determined by genetics and food intake

  • They increase with weight gain, but merely shrink with weight loss; may stimulate hunger

  • Weight loss causes a decline in basal metabolism


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Effects of Culture and Habits on Body Weight

  • Baseline body weight—cluster of genetic and environmental factors that cause a person’s weight to settle within a given range

  • Weight can be affected by factors like diet, exercise, and daily habits (e.g., stairs instead of elevator)


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Basal Metabolic Rate

  • The rate at which the body uses energy for vital functions while at rest

  • Factors that influence BMR

    • Age

    • Sex

    • Size

    • Genetics

    • Food intake


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Excess Weight and Obesity

  • Obesity—condition characterized by excessive body fat and a BMI equal to or greater than 30.0

  • Overweight—condition characterized by BMI between 25.0 and 29.9


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Factors Contributing to Being Overweight

  • Highly palatable food—we eat because it tastes so good

  • SuperSize It—food portions are larger than necessary for health

  • Cafeteria Diet Effect—more food and more variety leads us to eat more

  • Snacking—does not cause us to eat less at dinner

  • BMR—changes through the lifespan

  • Sedentary lifestyles


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Factors in Obesity

  • Genetic susceptibility—some people are more likely to be predisposed to obesity

  • Leptin resistance—condition where higher-than-normal levels of leptin do not produce desired physiological response

  • Weight cycling—repeated dieting, weight loss and weight gain tends to result in higher weight and reduced BMR.


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Eating Disorders

  • Anorexia nervosa—characterized by excessive weight loss, irrational fear of gaining weight and distorted body image

  • Bulimia nervosa—characterized by binges of extreme overeating followed by self-induced purging such as vomiting, laxatives

  • Binge-eating—disorder characterized by recurring episodes of binge eating without purging.


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Humanistic Theories

Abraham Maslow suggested that motives are divided into several levels from basic survival needs to psychological and self-fulfillment needs


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Self-Determination Theory

  • Optimal human functioning can occur only if the psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness are met.

  • Proposed by E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Self-Determination Theory

  • Autonomy—need to determine, control, and organize one’s own behavior and goals

  • Competence—need to effectively learn and master challenging tasks

  • Relatedness—need to feel attached to others


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Arousal Theory

  • People are motivated to maintain an optimum level of arousal—neither too high nor too low

  • Curiosity motive—helps us understand our environment


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Sensation Seeking

A person high in sensation seeking tends to look for exciting (and sometimes risky) activities


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Competence and Achievement

  • Competence motivation—behavior aimed at demonstrating competence and exerting control in a situation

  • Achievement motivation—behavior aimed at excelling, succeeding, or outperforming others at some activity


Emotion

Emotion


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Basic Emotions

  • Fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness

  • Basic emotions are innate and “hard-wired”

  • Complex emotions are a blend of many aspects of emotions

  • Classified along two dimensions

    • Pleasant or unpleasant

    • Level of activation or arousal associated with the emotion


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Physical Arousal and Emotions

  • Sympathetic nervous system is aroused with emotions (fight-or-flight response)

  • Different emotions stimulate different responses

    • Fear—decrease in skin temperature (cold-feet)

    • Anger—increase in skin temperature (hot under the collar)


Emotions

Emotions

  • Whole-organism responses, involving:

    • Physiological arousal

    • Expressive behaviors

    • Conscious experience


Debates in emotion research

Debates in Emotion Research

  • Which comes first, physiological arousal or the subjective experience of an emotion?

  • Can we react emotionally before appraising a situation, or does thinking always precede emotion?


Theories of emotion historical approaches

Theories of Emotion: Historical Approaches

Module 11: Emotion


Common sense theory

Common Sense Theory

  • Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a conscious feeling (fear, anger) and a physiological response.

  • Seeing and physical responses such as trembling. an angry dog triggers feelings of fear


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Common-Sense Theory

Stimulus

(Tiger)

Perception

(Interpretation

of stimulus—

danger)

Emotion

(Fear)

Bodily

arousal

(Pounding

heart)

Theories of Emotion

  • Common sense might suggest that the perception of a stimulus elicits emotion which then causes bodily arousal


James lange theory

James-Lange Theory

  • The theory that we experience emotion because we are aware of our bodily response to an emotion-arousing stimulus

  • Our awareness of the physiological reaction leads to our experience of an emotion.


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

James-Lange Theory


Cannon bard theory

Cannon-Bard Theory

  • The theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of an emotion.


Theories of emotion cognition and emotion

Theories of Emotion: Cognition and Emotion

Module 11: Emotion


Cognitive appraisal

Cognitive Appraisal

  • One’s thoughts about a situation

  • How a person interprets a situation in the environment


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Cognitive-Mediational Theory

  • Emotions result from the cognitive appraisal of a situation’s effect on personal well-being

  • Similar to two-factor, but cognitive mediational theory’s emphasis is on the cognitive appraisal as the essential trigger for the emotional response


Two factor theory

Two-Factor Theory

  • The theory that to experience emotion we must be physically aroused and must cognitively label the arousal

  • Emotions involve two factors:

    • A physiological arousal

    • A cognitive label of the arousal

  • Also called the Schachter-Singer Theory

Stanley Schachter


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Theories of Emotions Review


Robert zajonc 1923

Robert Zajonc (1923- )

  • American psychologist who concluded that some emotional reactions involve no deliberate thinking and cognition is not always necessary for emotion

  • Some emotions skip the thinking part of the brain


Robert zajonc 19231

Robert Zajonc (1923- )


Richard lazarus 1922

Richard Lazarus (1922- )

  • American psychologist who concluded that some emotional responses do not require conscious thought

  • However, there must be a minimum of unconscious thought.


Lazarus

Lazarus

  • His theory of emotion centered on the concept of appraisal - how an individual evaluates the impact of an event on his or her self or well being - subception

  • He also did classic work in the area of stress and coping


Fear a closer look

Fear: A Closer Look

Module 11: Emotion


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Brain and Emotions

  • Amygdala

    • evaluate the significance of stimuli and generate emotional responses

    • generate hormonal secretions and autonomic reactions that accompany strong emotions

    • damage causes “psychic blindness” and the inability to recognize fear in facial expressions and voice


Autonomic nervous system

Autonomic Nervous System

  • The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs

  • Monitors the autonomic functions

  • Controls breathing, blood pressure, and digestive processes

  • Divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems


Divisions of the nervous system

Divisions of the Nervous System


Sympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic Nervous System

  • The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats

  • Fight or flight response


Divisions of the nervous system1

Divisions of the Nervous System


Parasympathetic nervous system

Parasympathetic Nervous System

  • The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body

  • Brings the body back down to a relaxed state


Divisions of the nervous system2

Divisions of the Nervous System


The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system

The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System


The expression of emotion nonverbal communication

The Expression of Emotion: Nonverbal Communication

Module 11: Emotion


Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal Communication

  • Communicating feelings without words: --Facial expressions

    • Tone of voice

    • Hand gestures

  • Also called “body language”


Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior 2e

Emotion and Facial Expressions

  • Each basic emotion is associated with a unique facial expression

  • Facial expressions are innate and “hard-wired”

  • Innate facial expressions the same across many cultures

  • Display rules—social and cultural rules that regulate emotional expression, especially facial expressions.


The expression of emotion gender and cultural effects on emotion

The Expression of Emotion: Gender and Cultural Effects on Emotion

Module 11: Emotion


Gender effects

Gender Effects

  • Women are better at reading nonverbal communication of emotions.

  • Women tend to express emotions more than men do.


Display rules

Display Rules

  • The cultural rules governing how and when a person may express emotion

  • Rules greatly vary from culture to culture.


Facial expressions

Facial Expressions

  • Paul Ekman studied facial expressions in an attempt to determine if they are inborn or culturally based.


Ekman s facial expression study

Ekman’s Facial Expression Study

  • Insert “Ekman’s Studies on Facial Expression of Emotion” Video #28 from Worth’s Digital Media Archive for Psychology.

  • Instructions for importing the video file can be found in the ‘Readme’ file on the CD-ROM.


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