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Managerial Communication 09. Review. Long Reports. Report on Oil Spill in Gulf of Mexico Entering Europe (for Dabur). Business Reports. Types Preparation Organization Presentation. Meaning and Classification of Business Reports. Business Reports Definition.

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Long reports
Long Reports

  • Report on Oil Spill in Gulf of Mexico

  • Entering Europe (for Dabur)


Business reports
Business Reports

  • Types

  • Preparation

  • Organization

  • Presentation


Meaning and classification of business reports
Meaning and Classification of Business Reports

  • Business Reports Definition.

  • Business Report is an impartial, objective, planned presentation of facts to one or more persons for specific, significant business purpose.

  • The report facts could relate to events, conditions, qualities, progress, results, products, problems, or suggested solutions.


Long formal report
Long Formal Report

  • The length of a long report is not less than 10 pages, and the report usually includes the following parts “some of the parts optional”

  • Prefatory Parts:

  • Cover; title fly; title page; letters of authorization; acceptance;

  • approval; transmittal; acknowledgements; (abstract, synopsis, executive summary); table of contents; table of tables.

  • Report Body:

  • Introduction, Text or body, Terminal section.

  • Supplemental Parts:

  • Appendix, bibliography or endnotes, glossary, index.


Business reports classification
Business Reports Classification

  • Function: informational or analytical.

  • Subject matter: accounting, advertising, finance, marketing…etc.

  • Formality: formal or informal, the formal is long and the informal is short report.

  • Formal reports always include some of or all these prefatory and supplemental parts:

  • prefatory parts:

  • cover; title fly; title page; letters of authorization; acceptance; approval;

  • transmittal; acknowledgements; (abstract, synopsis, or executive summary); table of contents; table of tables.


  • Supplemental parts:

  • appendix, bibliography or endnotes, glossary, index.

  • some informal reports may include, in addition to the body, a title page,

  • transmittal, endnotes, and appendix.

  • Origin: authorized or voluntary, private or public.

  • Frequency of issue: periodic or special.

  • Type or Appearance: influenced by length and formality.

  • informal and short reports: memorandum, letter, a printed form


Preparation before writing reports
Preparation before Writing Reports

  • Define the Problem, Purpose, and Scope

  • Consider Who will Receive the Report

  • Determine Ideas to Include

  • Collect Needed Material

  • Secondary/ Primary

  • Sort, Analyze, and Interpret Data

  • Organize Data and Prepare Final Outline


  • Text or body:

  • The longest portion of any report body, Its title may be “Discussion”, “Findings” or “Data”.

  • Terminal section:

  • It is based on the text discussion no new material included.

  • The terminal section for the informational report is called “Summary”.

  • For analytical report is called “Conclusions” or “Recommendations” or combination.


Main parts of the report
Main Parts of the Report

  • Introduction:

  • Authorization,

  • Plan of presentation (layout)*,

  • Problem*,

  • Purpose*,

  • Scope*,

  • Methodology*,

  • Sources*,

  • Background or (history of the situation being investigated)*,

  • Definition of Terms, (introduction, a glossary at the end, or text)

  • Limitations,

  • Brief Statement of the Results or Recommendation.


  • Text or body:

  • The longest portion of any report body, Its title may be “Discussion”, “Findings” or “Data”.

  • Terminal section:

  • It is based on the text discussion no new material included.

  • The terminal section for the informational report is called “Summary”.

  • For analytical report is called “Conclusions” or “Recommendations” or combination.


Organization and outline of report body
Organization and Outline of Report Body

  • when you choose the organizational plan for the entire report body and text section, you should consider the reader, purpose, and subject matter.

  • Plans for Organizing Report Body:

  • Two ways to organizing a report body: deductive and inductive arrangement.


Deductive arrangement
Deductive Arrangement

  • Deductive Arrangement “ direct” is common way in organizing business reports.

  • The three sections may be arranged in one of these two ways:

  • Terminal section

  • Introduction

  • Text (discussion & explanation)

    Or

  • Introduction

  • Terminal section

  • Text (discussion & explanation)


Inductive arrangement indirect
Inductive Arrangement “indirect”.

The three sections are arranged as the following:

  • Introduction

  • Text (discussion & explanation)

  • Terminal section


Ways to organize report text section
Ways to Organize Report Text Section

  • By criteria or topics:

  • This is the most common way.

  • The main headings could be the standards, factors, solutions, benefits…etc.

  • By order of occurrence. “Progress reports,

  • By order of location or space.

  • By procedure or process.

  • By order of importance or by alphabetization.

  • By order of familiarity or simplicity.

  • By sources.

  • By problem solution.



Methods of outlining
Methods of Outlining

  • Methods of Outlining

  • It is becoming your table content.

  • Before writing the report, the outline helps you to see the relationship between topics, compare proportions and headings, check for loopholes in logical order, and eliminate overlapping.

  • you need to consider Types of Heading, Formats of Outline, and Parallelism in Heading.

  • Type of Heading:

  • For wording heading, you can choose from four type of heading:

  • Topic: single words (nouns), a few words, or short phrases. Globalization

  • Complete sentence heading: Globalization is a Syndrome of Process and Activities

  • Imperative sentence heading: Keep Driving Record Clear

  • Variant heading: Improving Employees’ Productivity



Formats of outline
Formats of Outline: Matter”. It is better not to use more than eight words. If your topic is one word, make sure that the word not to be too “Broad”.

  • After choosing your organizational plan and the wording of your main headings, you next choose a way to show levels “degrees) for various items in your outline.

  • For long report, three ways to number heading degrees.

  • Numeral-Letter Combination: it is used in business.

  • Decimal System: it is used in scientific and technical reports.

  • Letter- Numeral Combination: it is used by those who prefer letters before main heading and they do not need the additional degree that is possible with Roman numerals.


  • Degree of Heading Numeral-Letter Combination: Matter”. It is better not to use more than eight words. If your topic is one word, make sure that the word not to be too “Broad”.

  • 1st I.

  • Introduction 2d A.

  • 2d B.

  • 2d C.

  • 1st II.

  • 2d A.

  • Text/ 3d 1.

  • Discussion 3d 2.

  • 2d B.

  • 3d 1.

  • 3d 2.

  • 4th a.

  • 4th b.

  • 5th (1)

  • 5th (2)


  • 1st III.

  • 2d A.

  • Text/ 3d 1.

  • Discussion 3d 2.

  • 2d B.

  • 3d 1.

  • 3d 2.

  • 1st IV.

  • 2d A.

  • 3dh 1.

  • 3d 2.

  • 2d B.

  • 3d 1.

  • 3d 2.

  • Terminal 1st

  • 2d


Five important cautions
Five Important Cautions III.

  • Place the most important ideas (Criteria) in the highest degrees of heading, considering report length, subject matter, and reader.

  • Try to balance the sections as well as possible. For example, if section II.A, had 12 subheading and section II.B had no subheading, the proportion would be lopsided. Then try to narrow the scope of heading II.A (by rewarding it and by rearranging facts) and broaden II.B.

  • Have at least two subheading if you divide any topic; for example, A.1 and A.2 never ever only A.1.

  • The number of section headings neither too many nor too few. Usually three to seven main sections are desirable.

  • Do not consider the report title as a section heading, and do not begin the first sentence with exactly the same words as the heading.


Parallelism in heading
Parallelism in Heading: III.

  • For parallel, consistent, and construction all headings of the same degree within any part of an outline should be parallel to each other. They should have the same grammatical form- all nouns, all phrases, or all sentences. For example, the following headings should be parallel to each other:

  • I, II, III, IV, V.

  • A, B, C under I.

  • 1, 2, 3 under II.A

  • 1 and 2 under II.B

  • a and b under II.B.2…etc. However, subheadings 1, 2, 3 under II.A need not be parallel with subheadings 1 and 2 under II. B, and other third-degree subheadings in other sections.


Visual aids
Visual Aids III.

  • To improve both readability and appearance of a report, you should use heading and when desirable also graphic materials.

  • Heading and Subheading as Directional Signs:

  • The headings you have selected for your final outline will be directional signs for the reader of the finished report. Headings help direct the reader through the entire presentation.

  • System of styling the headings:

  • FIRST-DEGREE HEADINGS

  • (Centred and in all capitals-caps)

  • Second- Degree Headings

  • ( Centred, caps and lowercase, underlined)

  • Third-Degree Headings

  • (left margin, caps and lowercase, underlined)



Sample graphics for quantitative and other data
Sample Graphics for Quantitative and Other Data paragraph begins on same line).

  • Tables

  • Bar Graphs

  • Pie Charts

  • Line Graphs

  • Area Graph

  • Pictograms…etc.


Cover design and wording of title
Cover Design and Wording of Title paragraph begins on same line).

  • Wording Title Includes:

  • Who: the company

  • What: the subject matter

  • When: the year

  • Where: the country

  • Why: the objective


How to make references
How to Make References paragraph begins on same line).

  • Author Name (Year) Title, PP. (2-5).


Essential components of a report
Essential Components of a Report paragraph begins on same line).

  • Covering letter

  • Title Page

  • Title Fly

  • Internal Title

  • Abstract/ Executive Summary

  • Table of Contents

  • Table of Figures/ Charts

  • Table of Tables

  • Introduction/ Background

  • Problem Analysis and Identification


Essential components of a report1
Essential Components of a Report paragraph begins on same line).

  • Methodology

  • Data Analysis

  • Conclusions

  • Recommendations

  • Bibliography/ References

  • Footnotes and Endnotes

  • Appendix/ Annexures

  • Glossary

  • Index


Assignment
Assignment paragraph begins on same line).

You have to prepare a report on one of the following:

  • Annual Consumer Survey on Indian Cars

  • Report on BPO Sector: Current status and future challenges

  • Project Report on investment of Rs 100 Cr in a Road Construction (Report to be submitted to Bank)

  • Employee Engagement Survey Report

  • All India Sales Report for a White Goods Company.


Guidelines and rules
Guidelines and rules paragraph begins on same line).

  • All secondary data should be referenced and verifiable.

  • All primary data can be imaginary.

  • Report could be between 40 to 50 pages long.

  • Report should be electronically submitted to [email protected]

  • Report should be in PDF format.

  • Report file should be named as Report (Roll No.) (Name).pdf

  • Collaboration and Plagiarism will attract 0 (zero) marks


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