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Food Safety For Food Co-ops. Cindy Brison, MS, RD UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties. Reviewed By:. George Hanssen, Food Division Administrator for The Nebraska Department of Agriculture

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Food safety for food co ops

Food Safety For Food Co-ops

Cindy Brison, MS, RD

UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties


Reviewed by
Reviewed By:

  • George Hanssen, Food Division Administrator for The Nebraska Department of Agriculture

  • Jere Ferrazzo, Supervisor of the Food and Drink Section for the Douglas County Department of Health

  • Nancy Urbanec, Extension Associate, UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties


Food borne illness
Food Borne Illness

  • A disease transmitted to people by food

  • Caused by microorganisms

  • Foods that allow microorganisms to grow are called

    • POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS


Potentially hazardous
Potentially Hazardous

  • "Potentially hazardous food" means a food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting:

    • The rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms


Potentially hazardous food
"Potentially Hazardous Food"

  • Includes an animal food (a food of animal origin) that is raw or heat-treated; a food of plant origin that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed sprouts; cut melons; and garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not modified in a way that results in mixtures that do not support growth


Foods that cause food borne illness
Foods That Cause Food Borne Illness

  • Meat, poultry, pork ,fish, tofu, dairy products and eggs

  • Things that are re-hydrated

    • Beans, rice, oatmeal

  • Anything grown in the ground or on the ground

    • Potatoes, beets, carrots, onions, lettuce, garlic, celery, mushrooms, melons, tomatoes, herbs, sprouts


Statistics
Statistics

  • Tomatoes and melons have caused more incidences of salmonella in the last two years than eggs and poultry


Almonds and salmonella
Almonds and Salmonella

  • All almonds are now pasteurized (September 2007)—even those labeled raw—with gas, heat, steam or chemicals

    • Also blanching and oil roasting

  • Only 5% of all almonds in the US are consumed raw

  • California produces 100% of the US’s almonds and 80% of the worlds almonds


Usda nutritional database
USDA Nutritional Database

  • How do roasted almonds compare nutritionally with natural almonds? What about blanched vs. natural almonds? To learn more about a specific almond form, visit the USDA Nutrient Database and search under the term "almond." You can choose the form you are interested in at http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/.


Fermented foods
Fermented Foods

  • Bacteria can still grow in acidic environments if handled inappropriately

    • Example—improperly canned pickles


Garlic handle with care
Garlic—Handle With Care

  • Garlic and oil mixtures may grow botulism bacteria

  • When making garlic in oil mixtures:

    • Make a small amount

    • Keep it in the refrigerator when not in use

    • Discard after one week


Ways foods become unsafe
Ways Foods Become Unsafe

  • Cross-contamination

  • Time-temperature abuse

  • Poor personal hygiene

  • Improper cleaning and sanitizing


Cross contamination
Cross-contamination

  • Letting raw foods drip on ready to eat foods

  • Touching ready to eat foods with your hands

  • Accidentally storing chemicals near food items


Time temperature abuse
Time-Temperature Abuse

  • Danger zone---41°-135°

  • Four hours

  • Bacteria doubles every twenty minutes

  • Grows the best at room temperatures

  • Continues to grow in the refrigerator and freezer


Eggs and safe handling
Eggs and Safe Handling

  • Hard boiled eggs are still potentially hazardous and must be stored at 41° or lower

  • Eggs are porous, and should not be washed, as chemicals can be absorbed


Eggs

  • To warm up eggs for a recipe:

    • Run under warm water for a few minutes to bring it to room temperature

    • Do not let it sit out on the counter


Poor personal hygiene
Poor Personal Hygiene

  • Dirty uniforms

  • Poor hand washing

  • Smoking and eating around food

  • Not taking off aprons before using the bathroom

  • Not keeping hair covered


Improper cleaning and sanitizing
Improper Cleaning and Sanitizing

  • Not using the correct chemicals

  • Not mixing the chemicals correctly

  • Not washing, rinsing and air drying food contact surfaces between use


Who is more likely to get sick
Who Is More Likely to Get Sick

  • Anyone eating raw or undercooked foods

  • Anyone with reduced immunities

    • Small children

    • The elderly

    • Anyone sick—colds, on medications, cancer

    • Pregnant women

    • Alcoholics, anorexics, transplant patients


How to prevent food borne illness
How to Prevent Food Borne Illness

Http://www.Fightbac.org


Personal hygiene
Personal Hygiene

  • Clean Clothes

  • Shower daily

  • Short nails

  • No polish

  • Band-aids and gloves for cuts

  • Minimal jewelry


  • Don’t work when you are ill

  • Do not eat, drink or smoke while handling food

  • Wear gloves when handling ready to eat foods

    • Use non-latex gloves to prevent allergic reactions

    • This does not replace hand washing


Hand washing
Hand Washing

  • Hot water (at least 100° F)

  • Soap (not bar soap)

  • Friction for at least 20 seconds

  • Rinse

  • Dry with disposable towels

  • Turn off water and open bathroom door with towel

  • Dispose of towel


When to wash your hands
When to Wash Your Hands

  • Before preparing or eating food

  • After going to the bathroom

  • After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has gone to the bathroom

  • Before and after tending to someone who is sick

  • After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing

  • After handling an animal or animal waste

  • After handling garbage

  • Before and after treating a cut or wound


Sanitizing gels
Sanitizing Gels

  • Use after hand washing

  • Recommended for use if soap and water is not present

  • Over use of antibacterial gels may cause anti-biotic resistance


Food service regulations
Food Service Regulations

  • When dealing with food—hand washing with soap and water is the best for killing certain types of bacteria


Lotion
Lotion

  • Lotion is not recommended after hand washing in food service

  • Can leave a moist environment for bacterial growth



Temperature danger zone
Temperature Danger Zone

  • 41° to 135°

  • Bacteria grows best at room temperature

  • Keep potentially hazardous foods hot or cold

  • 4 hours is the limit


Delivery vehicle
Delivery Vehicle

  • Refrigeration is the best

  • Using coolers with ice and gel packs

  • Dry ice for frozen items

  • Vehicle must be clean and sanitary

  • Items that the food is stored in must be cleaned and sanitized

    • Coolers

    • Crates

    • Containers



Sanitizing delivery equipment
Sanitizing Delivery Equipment practices

  • Coolers should be washed, rinsed, and sanitized between each use

  • Use a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented bleach to 1 gallon of water in a spray bottle

  • Allow it to sit for two minutes before wiping with a disposable towel

  • Solution needs to be checked with test strips

    • Possibly re-mix every four hours while in constant use


Peroxide and vinegar
Peroxide and Vinegar practices

  • Cannot be used as a food service sanitizer

    • Cannot be tested for strength

    • Does not have a test strip

    • Per the Nebraska Department of Health

    • Produces another type of acid if mixed that is not totally safe


Delivery trucks
Delivery Trucks practices

  • Should be kept between 50°-70° if all perishable foods are kept in coolers/freezers

  • If the truck is refrigerated—then below 41°


Transportation
Transportation practices

  • Items that are frozen must stay at 0° or lower

  • Items that are cold must stay at 41° or lower

  • Fresh fruits and vegetables must be handled appropriately, as should dry goods


Delivery equipment
Delivery Equipment practices

  • Must be able to hold the appropriate temperature for the entire length of trip

  • Ice, dry ice, gel packs, and freezer packs are all appropriate

  • Sanitize reusable frozen items between uses

  • Best practice—keep a thermometer in the cooler

  • More ice when temperatures are warmer


Delivering produce
Delivering Produce practices

  • Items like squash, onions, potatoes and garlic are considered shelf stable until cut or cooked, and can be delivered in non-refrigerated containers

  • Sliced melons and tomatoes must be kept at 41° or lower


Receiving
Receiving practices


Receiving1
Receiving practices

  • All frozen items should be received frozen at 0°

  • All cold items should be received at 41° or lower

    • Eggs and shellfish can be received at 45°


Receiving and storing
Receiving and Storing practices

  • Items should be unpacked and stored as soon as possible

  • Time in the temperature danger zone is cumulative

  • Do not accept any foods that have been time-temperature abused


Reject food items if
Reject Food Items If: practices

  • The packaging is broken

  • They leak

  • Cans are swollen

  • There are large ice crystals on the box

  • There are signs of pests

  • Dry goods are wet or damaged

  • Food is expired


Receiving fresh meat
Receiving Fresh Meat practices

  • Beef, lamb, and pork

  • Bright in color

  • Cold or frozen

  • Firm and springs back when touched

  • No sour odors

  • No off colors


Receiving fresh meat1
Receiving Fresh Meat practices

  • Meat must be processed in a USDA or state approved facility and properly labeled for sale to the public


Receiving fresh poultry
Receiving Fresh Poultry practices

  • Cold fresh poultry should be packed on crushed, self-draining ice

  • Frozen

  • No discolorations or dark wing tips

  • Firm and springs back when touched

  • Not sticky

  • No unpleasant odor


Receiving fresh fish
Receiving Fresh Fish practices

  • Fresh on crushed, self-draining ice

  • Frozen

  • Bright red gills, shiny skin, bulging eyes

  • Flesh springs back when you touch it

  • Mild ocean or seaweed odor—not fishy


Receiving fresh shell eggs
Receiving Fresh Shell Eggs practices

  • Cold

  • Clean, unbroken shells

  • Not dirty, cracked, or smelly

  • Clean “farm fresh eggs” with a clean cloth and fresh water

  • Sometime a brush can be used to clean any adhering soils


Receiving dairy products
Receiving Dairy Products practices

  • Cold or frozen

  • Typical flavor

  • Uniform color, texture, smell

  • No mold, nothing expired


Storage
Storage practices


Storage1
Storage practices

  • Make sure that you have enough room to store all food items

  • Do not overload refrigerators and freezers for good air circulation

  • Refrigerators should maintain 41° or lower

  • Freezers should maintain 0° or lower

  • Check temperatures of delivered foods with a thermometer


Storage2
Storage practices

  • Make sure storage areas are clean and sanitized—frequently—based on use

    • Once a month deliveries will not mean the store room needs to be cleaned daily

  • Everything must be stored at least 6 inches off of the floor

  • Monitor for pests

  • FIFO


Cold storage
Cold Storage practices

  • Store ready to eat on the top shelf of the refrigerator

  • Steaks, chops, roasts and fish on the next shelf

  • Ground meat on the next shelf

  • Poultry and ground poultry on the bottom

  • Based on cooking temperatures


Cooking temperatures
Cooking Temperatures practices

  • All steaks, roasts and fish must be cooked to 145°

  • Ground meat/fish cooked to 155°

  • Brined and injected meats cooked to 155°°

  • Poultry and ground poultry cooked to 165°

  • Anything cooked in a microwave cooked to 165°

  • Leftovers cooked to 165°


Prepared food stored for 24 hours
Prepared Food Stored for 24 Hours practices

  • Must be labeled and dated

  • Must be covered

  • Must be disposed of within 7 days


Dry storage and ethylene gas
Dry Storage and Ethylene Gas practices

  • Ethylene gas is naturally produced by some fruits and vegetables

  • Aides in the ripening process

  • Keep produce intact and unwashed until ready to use it

  • Never refrigerate potatoes, onions, winter squash or garlic—and store separately


Refrigerate these gas releasers
Refrigerate These Gas Releasers practices

  • ApplesApricotsCantaloupeFigsHoneydew


Do not refrigerate these gas releasers
Do Not Refrigerate These Gas Releasers practices

  • AvocadosBananas, unripeNectarinesPeachesPearsPlums Tomatoes


Keep these away from gas releasers

Bananas, ripe practicesBroccoliBrussels sproutsCabbage Carrots CauliflowerCucumbersEggplant

Lettuce and other leafy greens ParsleyPeasPeppersSquash Sweet potatoesWatermelon 

Keep These Away From Gas Releasers


Jerky
Jerky practices

  • Jerky must be processed in a USDA inspected plant to be sold legally to the public (customers) in the United States


Thermometer use
Thermometer Use practices


Thermometers
Thermometers practices

  • Must be washed, rinsed and sanitized between uses

  • Must be accurate to +/- 2°

  • Can be used for either hot or cold foods

  • No glass thermometers used in food service

  • Must have thermometers in the coldest and warmest spots in the refrigerator/freezer


Calibrating thermometers
Calibrating Thermometers practices

  • Place thermometer in an ice slush past the dimple

  • Wait for it to stop

  • Adjust thermometer to 32° while leaving it in the water

  • Calibrate thermometer after dropping it

  • Never run through a dishwasher


Using a thermometer
Using a Thermometer practices

  • Always place it in the thickest part of a food item

  • Must go past the dimple

  • Measure thin foods sideways

  • Measure packaged foods by placing the thermometer between packages


Storing shelf stable items
Storing Shelf Stable Items practices

  • Fresh Produce can be stored on a clean shelf or a bin

    • Fruits, vegetables, trail mix, breads

From the blog "The Ice Man Cometh--Spring Edition"



Dispensing of foods
Dispensing of Foods practices

  • Keep foods hot or cold until picked up

  • Encourage individuals to use sanitized coolers with ice to keep foods out of the temperature danger zone


Alliance Rubber



Definitions
Definitions used or tongs

  • Cleaning—removing food and soil

    • Usually done with soap and water

    • Table tops, dishes, delivery vehicles, etc…

    • Can be food and non-food contact surfaces

  • Sanitizing---reducing the amount of microorganisms to a safe level

    • Usually involves a chemical

    • Can be done with hot water (180° F)

    • Involves a food contact surface


Statistics1
Statistics used or tongs

  • The levels of bacteria are greater in your kitchen sink than in your toilet

  • They are also higher on your cell phone and your steering wheel


Buckets
Buckets used or tongs

  • Cleaning and sanitizing pails must be kept separate

  • Monitor the chemical in the sanitizing bucket often with the correct test strips

  • Mix chemicals per their instructions


When to clean and sanitize
When to Clean and Sanitize used or tongs

  • Food contact surfaces must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized:

    • Each time you use them

    • When you are interrupted during preparation

    • When you start working with a different type of food

    • At least every four hours


Factors effecting sanitizers
Factors Effecting Sanitizers used or tongs

  • Hardness of the water

  • The water temperature

  • The concentration of the chemical

  • The time the chemical stays in contact with the food contact surface


Chemical safety
Chemical Safety used or tongs

  • Never mix two chemicals together

  • Have copies of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) available for all chemicals used

  • Keep these in a conspicuous place that all are aware of


How to use a three compartment sink
How to Use a Three Compartment Sink used or tongs

  • Sanitize the entire sink area

  • Scrape and rinse all items

  • Wash in hot soapy water (110°)

  • Rinse in hot, clear water (110°)

  • Immerse in sanitizer for the correct amount of time

  • Air dry all items


Questions
Questions???????????????? used or tongs

  • Call your local Health Department

  • Call your local Extension Office

  • Call Cindy Brison, MS, RD at the UNL Extension Office at 1-402-444-7804

  • Email the UNL Extension Office in Douglas and Sarpy Counties

    • [email protected]


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