Chapter 4 measuring gdp and economic growth
Download
1 / 23

Chapter 4: Measuring GDP and Economic Growth - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 125 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 4: Measuring GDP and Economic Growth. Objectives: Define GDP Income and expenditure approach Measurement of GDP and its major components. GDP as a measure of economic growth. Shortcomings of GDP as a measure of economic growth or the standard of living. Definition of GDP.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 4: Measuring GDP and Economic Growth' - cicily


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 4 measuring gdp and economic growth

Chapter 4: Measuring GDP and Economic Growth

Objectives:

Define GDP

Income and expenditure approach

Measurement of GDP and its major components.

GDP as a measure of economic growth.

Shortcomings of GDP as a measure of economic growth or the standard of living.


Definition of gdp
Definition of GDP

  • GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is the market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given time period.

  • Market value

    • goods & services are valued at their market prices.

    • GDP rises if prices rise (more on this later)

  • Final goods and services

    • Bought by final user

    • Intermediate goods are produced by one firm, bought by another, and used as a component of a final good or service.

    • Exlude intermediate goods to avoid double counting.


Definition of gdp1
Definition of GDP

  • Produced within a country

    • Any domestic production, regardless of who owns the resources

  • In a given time period

    • Production during a specific year (sales of used items excluded, except value of service in sale)

    • Inventory adjustments account for goods produced in one year but sold in another

      • if inventories rise by $10 million during 2010, $10 million is added to sales of final goods & services

      • If inventories fall by $10 million during 2010, $10 million is subtracted from sales of final goods & services


Gdp and circular flow
GDP and Circular Flow

  • Households sell factors of production to firms in factor markets

    • Factors of production: land, labor, capital

      • Wages for labor

      • Interest for loans used to purchase capital

      • Rent for the use of land

      • Profit to owners of capital

  • Total income paid to households=Y


Expenditure components of gdp
Expenditure Components of GDP

  • Consumption (C)

    • total payment for consumer goods and services

  • Investment (I)

    • purchase of new plant, equipment, and buildings

    • additions to inventories

  • Government spending (G):

    • government purchases ofgoods and services from firms

    • excludes “transfer payments” such as Social Security, Unemployment Insurance

  • Net exports (X-M)

    • (exports-imports)

    • Imports subtracted because counted as part of C,I,G and are not part of domestic production.


Y=total income; C=consumption; I=investment; G=government purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports


Gdp income expenditure approach
GDP: Income & Expenditure Approach purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports

  • GDP can be measured by income or expenditure side

  • Circular flow demonstrates that

    Y = C + I + G + (X-M)


Gross vs net domestic product
Gross vs Net Domestic Product purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports

  • GDP is before subtracting depreciation (capital consumption allowance)

  • NDP =GDP- CCA

    • NDP is “net of” depreciation.

  • Capital in t = Capital in (t-1) + Gross Investment –CCA

    = Capital in (t-1) + Net Investment

    where Net investment = Gross investment – CCA


Gdp the expenditure side
GDP: The Expenditure Side purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports


Gdp the income side
GDP: The Income Side purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports

  • Income includes

    1. Compensation of employees

    2. Rental income

    3. Net interest

    4. Corporate profits

    5. Proprietors’ income

  • Two adjustments to income required:

    1.Indirect taxes minus subsidies are added to get from factor cost to market prices.

    2. Depreciation (or capital consumption) is added to get from net domestic product to gross domestic product


GDP: The Income Side purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports


Gdp adjusting for changes in prices
GDP: Adjusting for changes in prices purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports

Nominal GDP

  • the value of goods and services produced during a given year valued at the prices that prevailed in that same year.

  • Nominal GDP is a more precise name for GDP.

    Real GDP

  • the value of final goods and services produced in a given year when valued at the prices of a reference base year.


Gdp deflator
GDP Deflator purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports

  • GDP deflator

    • Provides a comparison of current and base year prices


Lucas wedge
Lucas Wedge purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports

  • dollar value of the accumulated gap between what real GDP per person would have been if the 1960s growth rate had persisted and what real GDP per person turned out to be.


Temporary fluctuations in gdp the business cycle
Temporary fluctuations in GDP: purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exportsThe Business Cycle

  • 4 stages to a business cycle

    • Peak

    • Recession

    • Trough

    • Expansion


Comparing standard of living across countries
Comparing Standard of Living Across Countries purchases; X-M=exports-imports=net exports

  • Use per capita real GDP

  • Must make two adjustments

    • Convert into common currency

    • Goods and services must be valued at same prices

      • Using the exchange rate to convert can be problematic because prices of some products may differ after conversion

      • Purchasing Power Parity exchange rate is the exchange rate that would make the prices of goods and services equal across countries.

      • Using actual exchange rate instead of PPP exchange rate causes underestimate of standard of living in less developed countries.



Real gdp per capita across the world
Real GDP per capita across the world that in U.S.

Source: http://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/index.php


Limitations of gdp as measure of standard of living
Limitations of GDP as that in U.S. measure of standard of living

  • Household production

  • Underground economic activity

  • Health and life expectancy

  • Leisure time

  • Environmental quality

  • Political freedom and social justice


ad