Prevalence and patterns of nonmedical use of oxycontin and other pain relievers
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Prevalence and Patterns of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin ® and Other Pain Relievers. Joe Gfroerer Office of Applied Studies Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Anesthetic and Life Support Drugs and Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committees May 5, 2008 .

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Prevalence and Patterns of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin ® and Other Pain Relievers

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Prevalence and patterns of nonmedical use of oxycontin and other pain relievers

Prevalence and Patterns of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin®and Other Pain Relievers

Joe Gfroerer

Office of Applied Studies

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Anesthetic and Life Support Drugs and Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committees

May 5, 2008


National survey on drug use and health nsduh

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)

  • Representative nationally and in each State

  • Civilian, noninstitutional population, age 12+

  • Face-to-face interview, 1 hour

  • Computer-assisted, mainly self-administered

  • 67,500 respondents each year

  • Survey changed in 1999 and in 2002, creating breaks in trend

  • Response rates (2006):

    • 91% of Households selected

    • 74% of Persons selected within households (85% for youth, 73% for adults)


Nsduh data on illicit drug use

NSDUH Data on Illicit Drug Use

Illicit drug use: Use of an illicit drug , or nonmedical use of prescription drugs; For each drug:

  • Recency of use

    • Lifetime, Past year, Past month

  • Frequency of use

  • Date of first use

    • Incidence/First time use within past year

  • Dependence and abuse

    • Based on DSM-IV criteria

  • Received treatment in past year for problem with drug


Nonmedical prescription drug use nsduh definition

Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: NSDUH Definition

“Not prescribed for you”

OR

“You took the drug only for the experience or feeling it caused”

(Excludes OTC)


Prescription drug questioning strategy

Prescription Drug Questioning Strategy

  • Primary focus is on therapeutic classes (TCs):

    • Pain Relievers, Tranquilizers, Stimulants, Sedatives

  • Specific pharmaceuticals asked for each TC:

    • Lifetime use only (except OxyContin® and methamphetamine)

    • Includes mix of brand-name and generic drugs

    • Done mainly to help respondents understand the TC

    • “Pill cards” show specific pharmaceuticals

    • “Any other drug” in the TC collected as write-in(s)


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

“PILL CARDS”

Drug groups above the red line are asked separately

Drug groups below the red line are asked in tandem with followup to identify which one(s)

Any other drugs in TC are specified by write-in.


Lifetime nonmedical use of selected pain relievers age 12 or older 2006

Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain Relievers, Age 12 or Older: 2006

Numbers (in Millions)


Nonmedical pain reliever use trends and patterns

Nonmedical Pain RelieverUse: Trends and Patterns


Nonmedical pain reliever use age 12 or older 2002 and 2006

Nonmedical Pain Reliever Use, Age 12 or Older: 2002 and 2006

Numbers (in Millions)

(13.6%)

(5.1%)

(2.1%)

Past Year Use

Past Month Use

Lifetime Use

Note: Differences between 2002 and 2006 are statistically significant for lifetime, past year, and past month use.


Past year pain reliever dependence or abuse and treatment age 12 2002 and 2006

2002

2006

Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse and Treatment, Age 12+: 2002 and 2006

Number in Thousands

+

Received Treatment for Pain Reliever Problem During Last Treatment Visit, within Past Year

Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.


Past year nonmedical use of pain relievers by age 2002 and 2006

Past Year Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers, by Age: 2002 and 2006

Percent Used in Past Year

+

+

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.


Lifetime nonmedical use of selected pain relievers ages 18 25 2002 and 2006

Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain Relievers, Ages 18-25: 2002 and 2006

Percent Ever Used

+

+

+

+

Percocet, Percodan, or Tylox

Darvocet, Darvon, or Tylenol w/Codeine

Vicodin, Lortab, or Lorcet

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.


Lifetime nonmedical use of selected pain relievers ages 26 34 2002 and 2006

Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain Relievers, Ages 26-34: 2002 and 2006

Percent Ever Used

+

+

+

+

Percocet, Percodan, or Tylox

Darvocet, Darvon, or Tylenol w/Codeine

Vicodin, Lortab, or Lorcet

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2002 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Substate Region: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2004


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Source Where Pain Relievers Were Obtained for Most Recent Nonmedical Use among Past Year Users Aged 12 or Older: 2006

Source Where Respondent Obtained

Bought on Internet0.1%

Drug Dealer/Stranger3.9%

Other 14.9%

Source Where Friend/Relative Obtained

More than One Doctor

1.6%

More than One Doctor3.3%

Free from Friend/Relative7.3%

Free from Friend/Relative55.7%

One Doctor

19.1%

Bought/Took fromFriend/Relative4.9%

OneDoctor

80.7%

Bought/Took from Friend/Relative14.8%

Drug Dealer/Stranger1.6%

Other 12.2%

Note: Totals may not sum to 100% because of rounding or because suppressed estimates are not shown.

1 The Other category includes the sources: “Wrote Fake Prescription,” “Stole from Doctor’s Office/Clinic/Hospital/Pharmacy,” and “Some Other Way.”


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Free from Friend/Relative

Bought from Friend/relative

Prescriptions from 1 Doctor

Drug Dealer/Stranger

Took from Friend/relative

Prescription from 2+ Doctors

Internet

Other

Percent among Past Year Users

Sources of Rx Pain Relievers among Persons Who Used Pain Relievers Nonmedically in the Past Year: Combined 2005 and 2006


Pain reliever and oxycontin initiates

Pain Reliever and OxyContin® Initiates


Past year initiates for specific illicit drugs among persons aged 12 or older 2006

Marijuana

Cocaine

Stimulants

OxyContin®

LSD

Pain Relievers

Tranquilizers

Ecstasy

Inhalants

Sedatives

Heroin

Past Year Initiates for Specific Illicit Drugs among Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2006

Numbers in Thousands


Mean age at first use for specific illicit drugs among past year initiates aged 12 to 49 2006

OxyContin®

Marijuana

Cocaine

Heroin

Tranquilizers

Inhalants

LSD

Ecstasy

Pain Relievers

Stimulants

Sedatives

Mean Age at First Use for Specific Illicit Drugs among Past Year Initiates Aged 12 to 49: 2006

Age in Years


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Lifetime Use of Other Drugs among Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Initiates, Age 12 or Older : Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Percent of New Pain RelieverUsers

Tranqs, Seds, or Stims Nonmedically

Marijuana

Cocaine

Hallucinogens

Heroin


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Lifetime Use of Other Drugs among Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin® Initiates, Age 12 or Older : Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Percent of New OxyContin® Users

Tranqs, Seds, or Stims Nonmedically

Marijuana

Cocaine

Hallucinogens

Heroin


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Other Pain Relievers among Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin® Initiates, Age 12 or Older: Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Vicodin®, Lortab®, or Lorcet®

Percocet®, Percodan®, or Tylox®

Darvocet®, Darvon®, or Tylenol® with Codeine

®

Percent


Nonmedical oxycontin use trends and patterns

Nonmedical OxyContin®Use: Trends and Patterns


Trends in past year indicators of nonmedical use of oxycontin ages 12 and older 2004 to 2006

Trends in Past Year Indicators of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin®, Ages 12 and Older: 2004 to 2006

Number in Thousands

+ Difference between this estimate and the 2006 estimate is statistically significant at the .05 level.


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Aged 12-17

Aged 18-25

Aged 26-34

Aged 35-49

Aged 50 or Older

OxyContin® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin® Use, by Age Group: Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Percent

Past Year OxyContin®Use

Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse, with OxyContin® Use


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Male

Female

OxyContin® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin® Use, by Gender, Age 12+: Annual Averages 2004-2006

Percent

Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin® Use

Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse, with Nonmedical OxyContin® Use


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

OxyContin® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin® Use, by Race/Ethnicity, Age 12+: Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Percent

Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse, with Nonmedical OxyContin® Use

Past Year Nonmedical OxyContin® Use


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Large Metro

Small Metro

Nonmetro

OxyContin® Use and Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with OxyContin® Use, by County Type, Age 12+: Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Percent

Past Year OxyContin® Use

Past Year Pain Reliever Dependence or Abuse with Nonmedical OxyContin® Use


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

OxyContin® Use in Lifetime among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by State: Percentages, Annual Averages Based on 2002-2006 NSDUHs

Source: SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2006.


National survey on drug use and health 28nsduh 29

Past Year Use of Selected Illicit Drugs among Past Year Nonmedical Pain Reliever Users and Nonusers Aged 12 and Older: Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Percent Using in Past Year

Marijuana

Heroin

Hallucinogens

Cocaine


Dependence and abuse among past year users of selected substances ages 12 annual averages 2004 2006

Dependence and Abuse Among Past Year Users of Selected Substances, Ages 12+: Annual Averages, 2004-2006

Percentage of Past Year Users

28

28

17

14

14

13

12

9

Note: Percentages refer to dependence/abuse for each drug among past year users of that drug, except for OxyContin, which reflects pain reliever dependence/abuse among past year OxyContin users.


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