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Geography 441/541 S/14 Dr. Christine M. Rodrigue. Mars: First Order Landscapes The Great Crustal Dichotomy. Mars: First Order Landscapes. Mars: First Order Landscapes. Mars: First Order Landscapes. The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes On Earth, the orders of relief scheme

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Geography 441 541 s 14 dr christine m rodrigue

Geography 441/541

S/14

Dr. Christine M. Rodrigue

Mars: First Order LandscapesThe Great Crustal Dichotomy

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes


C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes


Mars first order landscapes

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • On Earth, the orders of relief scheme

      • Is sometimes seen in geography textbooks

      • Organizes topographic variation in a scale-dependent manner

      • Geographers often focus on

        • Spatial analysis of particular phenomena

        • Regional synthesis to integrate assemblages of phenomena

        • Scales at which processes and regional patterns operate

        • The interactions among phenomena at different scales


Mars first order landscapes1

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Examples of interactions among scales

      • In spatial statistics: the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP)

      • In human geography: local cultural and political responses to global economic and political processes

      • Biogeography: alpha, beta, and gamma measures of biodiversity

      • Geomorphology: "megageomorphology" has emerged as remote sensing technology has made the simultaneous examination of form and process at large scale (small map scale) possible


Mars first order landscapes2

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • For Mars, a handy descriptive scheme for handling the regional variations in Mars’ physical landscapes

      • The “First Order of Relief” = the crustal dichotomy

        • The northern lowlands: Vastitas Borealis

        • The southern highlands

      • If Earth’s oceans evaporated (which they will …), there would remain a crustal dichotomy here

        • Former ocean basins: low elevation, thin crust, basaltic, with a veneer of pelagic sediments

        • Former continents: high elevation, thick crust, granitic rocks and their extrusive igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic derivatives


Mars first order landscapes3
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Regional subdivisions:

        • Utopia Planitia

        • North Polar Basin

        • Embayments:

          • Acidalia Planitia

          • Chryse Planitia

          • Amazonis Planitia

          • Arcadia Planitia

          • Isidis Planitia

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes4

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Relatively young surface

        • Smooth with few craters

        • This is exactly what you’d expect if Mars had had an ocean

          • It could be expected to receive sediments from rivers, floods, and coastal processes and create terrigenous sediments nearshore

          • They would be turned into minerals that would eventually precipitate out of the water column onto the abyssal floor

          • The oceans would thus cover the underlying original rock surface, much as pelagic sediments here do


Mars first order landscapes5

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Further suggestions of an ocean:

        • Drainage of Martian outflow channels and valley networks

        • This is also exactly what you’d expect if Mars had had an ocean to serve as base level for stream networks


Mars first order landscapes6
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Drainage:

        • Valles Marineris' outflow channels, which drain into Chryse Planitia

        • Nanedis north of Ganges

        • Ares and Aram Chaos

        • Argyre to Aram and Ares

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes7

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes


Mars first order landscapes8

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Even better: Coastlines!?

        • Transition between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands is quite abrupt


Mars first order landscapes9

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes


Mars first order landscapes10
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Even better: Coastlines!?

        • Terraces on the Arcadia side of Alba Patera

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes11
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Even better: Coastlines!?

        • Tim Parker’s analysis of Viking imagery

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes12

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Even better: Coastlines!?

        • Tim Parker’s analysis of Viking imagery (1994)

        • His and others’ re-analysis using MOC imagery seemed to debunk his argument, which even he admitted in 2001

        • But it’s as though the new imagery is so fine in resolution that it can’t detect the coarser scale at which this putative ocean’s coastline features might exist

        • MOLA suggests that, in fact, at least one of the “coastlines” is at the same elevation (water seeks a level constant with respect to the geoid)


Mars first order landscapes13

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Plot complication

        • That "ocean" floor is dominated by andesitic rock

        • Not sediments with minerologies consistent with precipitation out of water.

        • No carbonates! No ocean?


Mars first order landscapes14
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • About those andesites

        • "Surface Type 1" (basalts dominating the southern highlands)

        • "Surface Type 2" (andesites and andesitic basalts dominating the northern lowlands)

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes15

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes


Mars first order landscapes16
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Vastitas Borealis

      • Rampart craters

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes17

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB

Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • The Southern Highlands

      • Mostly 1-5 km above the mean Martian geoid

      • Versus 0-3 km below for the northern lowlands

      • Sharp ~1 km scarp dividing the two


Mars first order landscapes18
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Arabia Terra

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes19
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Noachis Terra is another old land (for which “Noachian era” named)

      • West of Hellas, east of Argyre

      • Signs of water or fluid

        • Channels

        • Softened terrain

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes20
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Hellas, with Isidis and Utopia from the Northern Lowlands beyond

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes21
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Noachis Terra, Holden Crater, Vallis Uzboi

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes22
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Noachis Terra, Holden Crater, alluvial fan/bajada?

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes23
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Syrtis Major Planum, volcanic province, basaltic, not dusty

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes24
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Terra Tyrrhena, battered basalt, fluvial dissection, mineral precipitation (sulfates?), wind deposition

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes25
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Promethei Terra, east of Hellas, basaltic, landslides, dust devils

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes26
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Cimmeria Terra, basaltic, cratered, E of Hellas, S of Elysium, SW of Tharsis, Ma’adim Valles

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes27
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Ancient, battered terrain

      • Margaritifer Terra, basaltic, cratered, fluvial alteration, chaos terrain, east of Valles Marineris outflow, west of Meridiani

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


Mars first order landscapes28
Mars: First Order Landscapes

  • The “Orders of Relief” for Martian Landscapes

    • Basalt terrain and dust dominate the Southern Highlands

      • Spectra showing high proportions of basalt shown in the green

      • Andesite shown in the red channel

      • Hæmatite shown in blue (small area)

      • Dust-dominated areas come out brown

C.M. Rodrigue, 2014

Geography, CSULB


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