The biosphere matter and energy interdependence in nature
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The Biosphere - Matter and Energy, Interdependence in Nature. Chapter 3. Studying our Living Planet. Life on a global scale – biosphere Includes land, water, atmosphere and LIVING THINGS Extends 8 km above the land surface and 11 km below the ocean surface

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The Biosphere - Matter and Energy, Interdependence in Nature

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The Biosphere - Matter and Energy, Interdependence in Nature

Chapter 3


Studying our Living Planet

  • Life on a global scale – biosphere

    • Includes land, water, atmosphere and LIVING THINGS

    • Extends 8 km above the land surface and 11 km below the ocean surface

  • Ecology – study of the interactions between organisms and their surroundings


Studying Our Living Planet

  • Levels of organization

    • Species

    • Population

    • Community

    • Ecosystem

    • Biome

    • biosphere


Biotic – any part of the living environment

Animals

Plants

Mushrooms

bacteria

Abiotic – any nonliving part of the environment

Sunlight

Heat

Precipitation

Humidity

Wind

Water currents

Soil types

Biotic and Abiotic Factors


Ecological Methods

  • Three methods

    • Observation

      • Use of senses

      • Can be simple or complex

    • Experimentation

      • Can be set-up in a lab or out in a select-part of natural environment

    • Modeling


Energy, Producers & Consumers

  • Energy = life function

  • Ultimate energy source = the sun

  • Some organisms use chemical energy from inorganic sources

  • Autotrophs – organisms that use solar or chemical energy to produce “food”

  • AKA – primary producers


Primary Producers

  • Solar energy converted through photosynthesis

    • Converts CO2 &H2O into O2 and carbohydrates

    • Plants (on land) and algae (in the water)

  • Chemical energy converted where light is not available or conditions are harsh - chemosynthesis


Consumers

  • Heterotrophs – get their energy from consumption

  • AKA – consumers

  • Types of consumer – based on what they eat


Energy Flow in Ecosystems

  • Food Chains and Food Webs

    • Everyone is linked through feeding relationships

    • Energy flow  one way stream from producers to consumers

    • Food Chain – series of steps that move energy from eating to eaten

      • All food chains start with a producer

        • Terrestrial – plants

        • Aquatic – either plants OR phytoplankton


Examples of Food Chains


Energy Flow in Ecosystems

  • Most feeding relationships are more complicated than a simple series

    • Most organisms have a multi-food diet

  • Food Web

    • Network of feeding interactions

    • Also starts with a producer (SAME AS FOOD CHAINS)

    • Links multiple food chains

    • Effects of disturbances?


Example of Food Web


Trophic Levels and Ecological Pyramids

  • Trophic level – each step in a food chain or food web

  • Biomass – total amount of living tissue in a given trophic level


Trophic Levels and Ecological Pyramids

  • Ecological pyramid – show relative amount of matter or energy within a given food chain or web

    • The rule of 10 – in general, only 10 percent of the energy available in one level is stored in the level above

    • Organisms use most of the energy they get on life processes … the rest is release as heat

    • Higher up the pyramid – organisms require more food to get the energy they need … so there are less of them!


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