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Searching the Internet. CSCI-N 100 Department of Computer and Information Science. Searching the Internet. What is the Internet Does anyone own the Internet How is the Internet controlled. The Internet…. It is not a centrally owned or organized institution. It is not a single entity.

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Searching the internet

Searching the Internet

CSCI-N 100 Department of Computer and Information Science

Searching the internet1
Searching the Internet

  • What is the Internet

  • Does anyone own the Internet

  • How is the Internet controlled

The internet
The Internet…

  • It is not a centrally owned or organized institution.

  • It is not a single entity.

  • It is not a 'Den of Iniquity'

  • It is not crawling with eight - year - old children controlling nuclear bombs.

  • The Internet is not a hive of viruses waiting to attack your computer.

  • The Internet is not just for pimple-faced teenagers with propeller beanies.

The internet1
The Internet…

  • Is a vast repository of information.

  • Is relatively universal

  • Is dynamic – changing minute-by-minute

The internet2
The Internet

  • InterNIC

    • - Internet Network Information Center - An international coalition of Internet organization that has what control there is of the Internet

  • IAB

    • - Internet Architecture Board - An organization that sets standards for the Internet


    • - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers – An organization responsible for the global coordination of the Internet's system of unique identifiers

  • W3C

    • World Wide Web Consortium - develops interoperable technologies, specifications, guidelines, software, and tools

Search engines
Search engines

  • Search Engines

    • an information retrieval system

    • allows one to ask for content meeting specific criteria

    • list is often sorted with respect to some measure of relevance of the results

    • use regularly updated indexes to operate quickly and efficiently

Search engines1
Search engines

  • First search engines

    • Archie - archive" without the "v"

      • created in 1990 by a student at in Montreal

      • program downloaded the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) sites

      • creating a searchable database of filenames

      • could not search by file contents

Search engines2
Search engines

  • Gopher

    • indexed plain text documents

    • created in 1991 at the University of Minnesota: Gopher was named after the school's mascot

    • most of the Gopher sites became websites after the creation of the World Wide Web because these were text files

Search engines3
Search engines

  • Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives)

    • provided a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings

  • Jughead (Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display)

    • a tool for obtaining menu information from various Gopher servers

And the answer is
And the answer is …

  • People have trouble with

    • How to ask

    • What to ask

    • Where to ask

    • When to ask

How to ask
How to ask

  • Search criteria

    • Build a query

      • Date

      • File name

      • Location

      • Keyword

      • Domain

      • Country

How to ask1
How to ask

  • Boolean phrases

    • And, + (plus)

      • Finds documents containing all of the specified words or phrases

      • Peanut AND butter finds documents with both the word peanut and the word butter.

    • Or

      • Finds documents containing at least one of the specified words or phrases

      • Peanut OR butter finds documents containing either peanut or butter. The found documents could contain both items, but not necessarily.

    • Not, - (minus)

      • Excludes documents containing the specified word or phrase

      • Peanut NOT butter finds documents with peanut but not containing butter

    • Wild card (*)

      • Finds documents with just given information, * fills in the rest

      • Pea* returns all pages with the phrase pea (Be Careful!!)

What to ask
What to ask

  • All of these words

    • Documents must contain all of the words you list

  • This exact phrase

    • Documents must contain these exact words in the order you typed them

  • Any of these words

    • Documents must contain at least one of the words you list

  • None of these words

    • Documents that contain these words will be omitted from your results

Where to ask
Where to ask

  • Search engines

    • Do not really search the World Wide Web directly

    • Searches a database of the full text of web pages selected from the billions of web pages out there residing on servers

    • Search engine databases are selected and built by computer robot programs called “spiders”

    • After spiders find pages, they pass them on to another computer program for "indexing."

Types of search tools
Types of Search Tools

  • Search engines

    • built by computer robot programs ("spiders") -- not by human selection

    • NOT organized by subject categories -- all pages are ranked by a computer algorithm

    • contain full-text (every word) of the web pages they link to -- you find pages by matching words in the pages you want

    • huge and often retrieve a lot of information -- for complex searches use ones that allow you to search within results

    • Unevaluated -- contain the good, the bad, and the ugly -- YOU must evaluate everything you find

      • Google, Yahoo,

Types of search tools1
Types of Search Tools

  • Subject directories

    • built by human selection -- not by computers or robot programs

    • organized into subject categories, classification of pages by subjects -- subjects not standardized and vary according to the scope of each directory

    • NEVER contain full-text of the web pages they link to -- you can only search what you can see (titles, descriptions, subject categories, etc.) -- use broad or general terms

    • small and specialized to large, but smaller than most search engines -- huge range in size

    • often carefully evaluated and annotated (but not always!!)


  • Librarians Index


  • Infomine


  • AcademicInfo




  • Google Directory


  • Yahoo!


Types of search tools2
Types of Search Tools

  • Searchable database contents or the "Invisible Web"

    • Invisible Web is estimated to offer two to three times as many pages as the visible web

    • Pages in non-HTML formats (pdf, Word, Excel, Corell suite, etc.) are "translated" into HTML

    • Script-based pages, whose links contain a ? or other script coding, no longer cause most search engines to exclude them

    • Pages generated dynamically by other types of database software (e.g., Active Server Pages, Cold Fusion) can be indexed if there is a stable URL somewhere that search engine spiders can find

Types of search engines
Types of search engines

  • Meta-Search Engines

    • submit keywords in its search box

    • it transmits your search simultaneously to several individual search engines and their databases of web pages

    • Meta-search engines do not own a database of Web pages

    • Examples





  • Module #8: Communication and Internet protocols


  • Module #2: Communication and the World Wide Web


  • World Wide Web Consortium


  • Search engine



  • The BEST Search EnginesUC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops