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1. Non-Experimental Research Corey and Lachter chapter 6
2. What is non-experimental research? Take people as they are and measure them
Have already conducted one type: Correlation
(terminology and use of correlational study to refer to non-experimental)
Other types of non-experimental: key question = are groups different from each other
3. First, though? Two types of pre-non-experimental research to address:
Both = first step in research
Demonstration: how do people behave in a certain situation?
Just one variable
Case study: how does one person behave?
4. Demonstration Why use?
Asch, as demonstration
Milgram, as demonstration
More modern day possibilities? (either actual or that would make sense to do)
5. Case study May have unique case
Like a demonstration, with one person, or like a non-experimental version of a single subject design: how does this person behave
Can then do follow-up research, to test whether certain variables are playing a role
6. Case study Examples?
7. Back to more traditional non-experimental designs Correlation
8. Other types of non-experimental Static groups
Ex post facto
9. Static groups People are in groups that *could* be changed, but come into the study in a pre-existing group
For ethical reasons, cannot change
Want to know if two groups differ on some variable
10. Static groups Examples?
11. Ex post facto Like static groups, but people are born into the group
Again, for ethical (and practical) reasons, cannot change
12. Ex post facto Examples?
13. Time series Key question = did some event change people?
Predictor variable = before or after event
Criterion variable = some behavior
Again, cannot manipulate predictor variable
14. Time series Examples?
15. Another way to divide study designs Think back to the distinction between independent-samples t-tests and dependent-samples t-tests
16. The good and the bad of non-experimental What can non-experimental designs tell you about?
What can they not tell you about?
What sorts of big questions could you address with them?
What sorts of hypotheses could go with those big questions?
What other causal paths could there be?
17. Applying it all What?s the big question, the type of design, and what other causal variables?
Teaching technique and student performance
Spending habits before and after Katrina
Traffic patterns in London after charges for driving downtown
Gender and math ability