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Morphology. Morphology. Morphology. Definition: the analysis of word structure. studies the ways in which morphemes are used to express grammatical contrasts in sentences. studies the principles/rules governing the construction of new words.

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Morphology
Morphology

Morphology


Morphology1
Morphology

Definition:

the analysis of word structure.


Inflectional vs derivational morphology morphology

studies the ways in which morphemes are used to express grammatical contrasts in sentences

studies the principles/rules governing the construction of new words

Inflectional vs Derivational Morphology Morphology


Inflectional morphology
Inflectional Morphology grammatical contrasts in sentences

Morpheme - unit of meaning which may be represented by one or more allomorphs

Examples: cat-s

sing-ing

good-ness

un-happi-ly

act

act-ive

act-iv-ity

in-act-ive

in-act-iv-ity


Kinds of morphemes
Kinds of Morphemes grammatical contrasts in sentences

  • Roots/stems/Free Morphemes

  • Affixes/Bound Morphemes


Affixes bound morphemes represent grammatical or relational meanings
Affixes/Bound Morphemes grammatical contrasts in sentencesRepresent grammatical or relational meanings

Types of Affixes

Prefixes - come before the stem

Un-happy

Suffixes - come after the stem

Happi-ness

Infixes - come within the stem (English doesn't use these)

Tagalog (Philippine language) examples of infixes

Stem: -basa- which means "read"

/bumasa ako nan libro/ read I the book

I read the book. (past tense)

/binasa an libro/ was read the book

The book was read.

Bontoc (Philippine language) examples of infixes

/fikas/ "strong" /fumikas/ "He is becoming strong"

/bato/ "stone" /bumato/ "He is becoming stone"

/fusul/ "enemy" /fumusul/ "He is becoming enemy


Allomorphs
Allomorphs grammatical contrasts in sentences

Definition:

alternative forms which carry the same meaning but have different phonological shape.


Allomorphs1
Allomorphs grammatical contrasts in sentences

Examples from English

  • /-iz/ class/classes (following sibilants s,c,z,j)

  • /-s/ cat/cats (following nonsibilant voiceless consonants)

  • /-z/ tub/tubs (following nonsibilant voiced consonants)

  • /-z/ bee/bees (following vowels)

    Allomorphs in “Plural” Morpheme

    (/-iz/, /-s/, /-z/)


Morphologically characterized language types
Morphologically Characterized Language Types grammatical contrasts in sentences

Isolating Languages

Agglutinating Languages

Fusional Languages

Polysynthetic Languages


Two questions used to classify languages morphologically
Two Questions Used to Classify Languages Morphologically grammatical contrasts in sentences

  • Does a word divide into smaller meaningful parts?

  • Does each component express a single meaning?


Isolating languages
Isolating Languages grammatical contrasts in sentences

Question 1 = NO

Languages that use undividable words, but have strict rules of word order to keep the grammatical meanings of things clear.

Also know as “analytic languages “

Included are Chinese, Indonesian, Pidgins and Creoles.


Isolating languages1
Isolating languages grammatical contrasts in sentences

Mandarin Chinese examples

/wo gang yao gei ni na yi bei cha/

I just want for you bring one cup tea

"I am about to bring you a cup of tea."

/xia yu/

down rain

"It was/is/will be raining"


Agglutinating languages
Agglutinating Languages grammatical contrasts in sentences

Questions 1 = Yes, 3=Yes

  • Words can be divided into morphemes

  • Each morpheme expresses a separate grammatical meaning

    Included are Finnish, Turkish, Japanese, Tamil, etc.


Agglutinating languages1
Agglutinating Languages grammatical contrasts in sentences

Turkish example

from the stem /ol-/ meaning die

ol-mek "to die" stem + infinitive

ol-dur-mek "to kill" st+Cause+infinitive

ol-dur-me-mek "to not kill" st+cause+neg+infin

ol-dur-ul-mek "to be killed" st+cause+Pass+infi

ol-dur-ul-me-mek "to not be killed"

st+cau+pas+neg+inf

oldurebilemeseydim

"I wish I hadn't been able to kill"

ol -dur -ebil -eme -sey -d -im

die cause able not wish past I


Fusional languages
Fusional Languages grammatical contrasts in sentences

Questions 1 = Yes, 3=No

  • Words can be divided into morphemes,

  • Morphemes can express more than one grammatical meaning

    Also know as “inflectional languages “

    Included are Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic languages. .


Fusional languages1
Fusional Languages grammatical contrasts in sentences

Latin Example

Declensions -- variations on nouns (e.g. man, men, man’s, men’s).

Conjugations -- variations on verbs (e.g. sing, sang, sung).

e pluribus unum

pluribus

plur- ibus

many – plural/dative case

“Out of many, one”


Systems of inflectional morphology
Systems of Inflectional Morphology grammatical contrasts in sentences

Verb tenses - mark time and person

English example: 6 persons and past, present, future,etc

Noun tenses - mark time on nouns

Japanese example: shiroi(white), shirokatta(was white), and shirkute(being white)

Noun cases - mark gramatical role in sentence

Finnish example: fifteen cases

nominative (subject) ablative (from)

allative (to) essive (as)

partitive (part of) translative (change to)

abessive (without) accusative (object)

instructive (by) inessive (in)

comitative (with) elative (out of)

genitive (possessive) illative (into)

adessive (on)


Latin declension of friend and field
Latin Declension of grammatical contrasts in sentences“Friend” and “Field”


Polysynthetic languages
Polysynthetic Languages grammatical contrasts in sentences

A small group of languages that have complex multi-morpheme words that carry a sentence-worth of information.

Included are Basque and many Amerindian languages.

Also know as “amalgamating languages”

These languages are usually very difficult to learn, unless you are brought up with them.  The Basques joke that they are immune to the Devil because he couldn't learn their language!


Polysynthetic languages chukchi example
Polysynthetic Languages grammatical contrasts in sentencesChukchi Example

1st person- big- head- aching

I have a bad headache.

Ojibwe Example

  • baataanitaaanishinaabemong = "being able to speak Ojibwe."

  • ngiinitaaozhibii'amaadimin =

  • "we used to write to each other."


Derivational morphology
Derivational Morphology grammatical contrasts in sentences


Processes of new word formation
Processes of New Word Formation grammatical contrasts in sentences

  • Prefixation "disobey“

  • Suffixation "kindness"

  • Conversion - a word changes its class without changing its form "carpet (n.)" becomes "carpet (v.)"

  • Compounding - two free bases/stems are added together “blackbird"

  • Reduplication - "goody-goody" "wishy-washy" "teeny-weeny"

  • Clippings - "ad" "telly" "flu"

  • Acronyms - "NATO" "DJ" "VIP"

  • Blends - "Brunch" from Breakfast and Lunch "Telex" from teleprinter and exchange


Defining word
Defining “Word” grammatical contrasts in sentences

Five ways to identify a word

1. Potential Pauses - consistent pauses in speech when sentence spoken slowly.

2. Indivisibility - where are additional words added? They will be added between words, not within them.

3. Minimal Free Forms - Bloomfield defined as: the smallest units of speech that can meaningfully stand on their own.

4. Phonetic Boundaries - in languages with consistent and uniform stress (for example Welsh on the last syllable) can identify the end of each word by stress.

5. Semantic Units - in some sentences, words constitute units of meaning (Dog bites man.) However, in other sentences, words are not clearly separate units of meaning (I switched on the light.) "the" doesn't have a clear separate meaning, and "switched on" requires two words to convey meaning.


Word classes
Word Classes grammatical contrasts in sentences

Definition: groups based on the way words are used/behave in language

Example from English

nouns boy, machine, beauty

pronouns she, it, who

adjectives happy, three, both

verbs go, frighten, be

prepositions in, under, with

conjunctions and, because, if

adverbs happily, soon, often

interjections gosh, wow, alas

also sometimes

participles looking, taken

articles a, the, an


Criteria for word classes
Criteria for Word Classes grammatical contrasts in sentences

Example of adjective criteria from English

Five criteria for "adjectiveness"

A. occurs after form of to be - he's sad.

B. occurs after articles and before nouns –

the big car.

C. occurs after very - very nice.

D. occurs in the comparative or superlative

- sadder/saddest, more/most important.

E. occurs before -ly to form adverbs - quickly


Gradience
Gradience grammatical contrasts in sentences

Words will not always fit neatly in one particular class

Example from English - "round“

Adjective Mary bought a round table.

Preposition The car went round the corner.

Verb The yacht will round the buoy soon.

Adverb We walked round to the shop.

Noun It's your round. I'll have a beer.


Adjective gradience in six words
Adjective Gradience grammatical contrasts in sentencesin Six Words

A. occurs after form of to be - he's sad.

B. occurs after articles and before nouns –

the big car.

C. occurs after very - very nice.

D. occurs in the comparative or superlative -sadder/saddest, more/most important.

E. occurs before -ly to form adverbs - quickly


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