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Kingdoms of the Grasslands – West African Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Chapter 8 (2 of 4). Need to Know: Ghana Mali Songhai. They are know as the Sudanic states. Islam Spreads Quickly Through North Africa. Islam spread mostly by merchants and travelers, not so much invaders.

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Kingdoms of the grasslands west african kingdoms of ghana mali and songhai

Kingdoms of the Grasslands – West African Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

Chapter 8 (2 of 4)


Need to Ghana, Mali, and SonghaiKnow:

Ghana

Mali

Songhai

They are know as the Sudanic states


Islam spreads quickly through north africa
Islam Spreads Quickly Through North Africa Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

Islam spread mostly by merchants and travelers, not so much invaders


By 700s states formed along edge of sahara
By 700s, States Formed Along Edge of Sahara Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

Sahel – grassland (savanna) at south end of Sahara where these states formed


West African grasslands we are discussing Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

Advantages:

Grew by being along trade route (gold traded from west Africa for salt or dates from Sahara)

Used camels to trade in the desert

Disadvantages:

Suffered many droughts

Located on plains, so open to invasion


West african o r sudanic states

These states were led by a council of elders, and would get control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful

A majority of populations never converted to Islam, just the rulers (shows that Islam blended with local cultures and traditions)

West African or Sudanic States


West african or sudanic states
West African or Sudanic States control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful

  • Resembled rest of north Africa, but distinctive local architecture

  • Towns were commercial – lots of trade and craftsmen

  • Large militaries to protect trade – encouraged merchants and scholars to come to places like Mali


Ghana
Ghana control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful

Grew into strong state by taxing gold and salt trade that occurred there

1st of the Sudanic states

Ghana was attacked in 1076 and began declining

By 900s, rulers had converted to Islam

Attacked by Almoravids – Muslim reformers within the Berbers


Mali control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful

Click map for video on Mali


2 most important leaders of mali
2 Most Important Leaders of Mali control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful

Sundiata

  • Nicknamed the “Lion Prince”

  • Greatly expanded Mali

  • Overcame regional fighting to unite Mali as 1 powerful state

  • Created basic laws for Mali

  • Known as Mansa (emperor)

  • Created social arrangement – each clan had different responsibility (helped unite them)

  • Severely punished crime to protect trade and keep security

  • Mansa Musa

  • Mansa Musa led Mali 1312-1337

  • Went on hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca giving away gold to show Mali’s wealth

  • Brought back Ishak al-Sahili, architect, built mosques and unique form of Mali architecture (out of beaten clay; ex = mosque of Jenne)

  • Mali’s contact with outside world brought change and innovation


Ibn butata
Ibn control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerfulButata

Famed Arab traveler who recorded his journeys.

Made trip through Africa and recorded African societies and cultures

Made journey to Mali


Farming in west african grassland kingdoms
Farming in west African grassland kingdoms control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful


Ghana control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful

Mali

Songhai


Songhai
Songhai control over neighbor states and tax them to get more powerful

  • Located in Mali empire, as Mali crumbled, Songhai grew

  • Along gold trade route helped it grow

  • Rulers became Muslim, majority people didn’t

  • Gao = capital of Songhai, many mosques and foreign merchants living there


Sunni ali

Led Songhai (1464-1492) – used cavalry to expand Songhai into huge empire

Persecuted all who opposed him (including fellow Muslims)

Sunni Ali

Askia = title given to rulers who followed Sunni Ali

Set up bureaucracy to rule far flung areas of empire

Captured Timbuktu and Jenne


Muhammad the great
Muhammad the Great into huge empire

Expanded Songhai so by 1500s it dominated central Sudan


Life in songhai
Life in Songhai into huge empire

Similar to life in the previous states in the savanna (Ghana and Mali)

Islam blended with local pagan beliefs – upset ulama

(example = ulama upset women didn’t have to wear veils)

The Fall of Songhai

1591 – Songhai defeated by Morocco

(Songhai larger army, but Morocco had guns)

Defeat set off internal revolts and Songhai broke apart


Looking back at islam s impact on sudanic west african states
Looking Back at Islam’s Impact on into huge empireSudanic (West African) States


West african traditions that lived on after the fall of songhai
West African Traditions That Lived on After the Fall of Songhai

Hausa people of northern Nigeria formed states after Songhay collapsed, blended Islam and pagan traditions

Other states in the region continued to blended Islam and Paganism

These states used large cavalries to protect trade (salt, grain, cloth)

These states were relatively small, but continued culture of Ghana, Mali, Songhai


Islam s affect on slavery
Islam’s Affect on Slavery Songhai

Muslims saw slavery as step to converting people to Islam

Slavery existed prior to Islam coming, but as Muslims conquered Africa, slave trade grew on huge scale

Slave trade lasted 700 years and is an example of Islam’s lasting impact on Africa

Slaves used as servants, laborers, soldiers, administrators, eunuchs, and concubines (so wanted to enslave women and children)


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