Words to Know about Cells and the Parts of the Cells
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Words to Know about Cells and the Parts of the Cells. Key words. Cell sel. A membrane-covered structure that contains all of the materials necessary for life. Homeostasis hO-mE-O-'stA-s&s. The maintenance of a stable internal environment. Unicellular yü-ni -' sel -y&- l&r.

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Words to Know about Cells and the Parts of the Cells

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Words to Know about Cells and the Parts of the Cells


Key words


Cell

sel

A membrane-covered structure that contains all of the materials necessary for life


HomeostasishO-mE-O-'stA-s&s

The maintenance of a stable internal environment


Unicellularyü-ni-'sel-y&-l&r

Organisms made from

a single cell


Multicellular

Organims made of

many cells


ProkaryoticprO-'ka-rE-"Ot/

Describes a cell that does not have a nucleus or any other membrane-covered organelles;

example: bacteria


Eukaryoticyü-'ker-E-"Ot,

Describes a cell that has a nucleus; examples: animals and plants


The Chemistry of Cells


Metabolismm&-'ta-b&-"li-z&m

The combined chemical processes that occur in a cell or living organism


DNA

DeoxyriboNucleic Acid; hereditary material that controls all the activities of a cell, contains the information to make new cells, and provides instructions for making proteins


ATP

Adenosine TriPhosphate; molecule that provides energy for a cell’s activities


Nucleic acidnu-'klE-ik-

A biochemical that stores information needed to build proteins and other nucleic acids; made up of subunits called nucleotides


Protein'prO-"tEn

A biochemical that is composed of amino acids; its functions include regulating chemical reactions, transporting and storing materials, and providing support


Carbohydrate

  • A biochemical composed of one or more simple sugars bonded together that is used as a source of energy and to store energy.


Lipid

A type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water, including fats and oils; lipids store energy and make up cell membranes.


Phospholipid

A molecule that forms much of a cell membrane


Chlorophyll

The green chemical pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis


Organelles


Organelle

  • Structures within a cell, sometimes surrounded by a membrane


Cytoplasm

  • Cellular fluid surrounding a cell’s organelles


Cell membrane

  • A phospholipid layer that covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell’s environment


Nucleus

  • Membrane-covered organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains a cell’s DNA and serves as a control center for the cell


Mitochondria

  • Cell organelles surrounded by two membranes that break down food molecules to make ATP


Ribosome

  • A small organelle in cells where proteins are made from amino acids


Endoplasmic reticulum

  • A membrane-covered cell organelle that produces lipids, breaks down drugs and other substances, and packages proteins for delivery out of the cell


Golgi complex

  • The cell organelle that modifies, packages, and transports materials out of the cell


Vacuole

  • A large membrane-covered structure found in plant cells that serve as storage containers for water and other liquids; animal cells have small vacuole.


Lysosome

  • A special vesicle in cells that digest food particles, wastes and foreign invaders


Vesicle

  • A membrane-covered compartment in a eukaryotic cell that forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds an object and pinches off.


Plant organelles


Cell wall

  • A structure that surrounds the cell membrane of some cells and provides strength and support to the cell membrane; found in plants, and fungi


Chloroplast-

  • An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs


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