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Unit 13. Respiratory System and Pulmonology. Respiratory System. Primary functions: Inspiration of oxygen Expiration of carbon dioxide. Respiratory System. Movement of air: Nasal and sinus passages Pharynx Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli. Structures of the Respiratory System.

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unit 13

Unit 13

Respiratory System and Pulmonology

respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Primary functions:
    • Inspiration of oxygen
    • Expiration of carbon dioxide
respiratory system1
Respiratory System
  • Movement of air:
    • Nasal and sinus passages
    • Pharynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveoli
exchange of gases
Exchange of Gases
  • Oxygen diffuses through alveolar wall into surrounding capillaries
  • Hemoglobin transports oxygen to cells
  • Carbon dioxide moves from tissues into bloodstream
  • Carbon dioxide moves into alveoli and is exhaled
lungs
Lungs
  • pneumon/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • pneumon/o/pathy = any lung disease
    • pneumon/o/rrhagia = hemorrhage of lungs
    • pneumon/o/melan/osis = lung disease characterized by black lung tissue
      • melan/o
lung conditions
Lung Conditions
  • Examples:
    • pneumon/itis = inflammation of lungs
    • pneumon/ia = acute inflammation of lungs
      • Caused by:
        • Bacteria, fungi, and viruses
      • Treatment:
        • Antibiotics
    • atel/ectasis = collapsed lung
      • Dilated or expanded
lung procedures
Lung Procedures
  • Examples:
    • pneumon/o/tomy = incision into lung
    • pneumon/ectomy = excision of part or all of lung
    • pneumon/o/centesis = surgical puncture of lung to remove fluid
    • pneumon/o/pexy = surgical fixation or attachment of prolapsed lung
lungs1
Lungs
  • pulmon/o = another combining form for lungs
    • Used only in a few words
  • Examples:
    • pulmon/ary and pulmon/ic = pertaining to lungs
    • cardi/o/pulmon/ary = pertaining to heart and lungs
    • pulmon/ary valve = heart valve through which blood travels to lungs
    • pulmon/ary embolus = blood clot moving to lung
slide12
Air
  • pneum/o = combining form
    • Can also mean lung
  • Examples:
    • pneum/o/therapy = treatment with compressed air
    • pneum/o/meter = instrument that measures air volume in respiration
      • spir/o/meter = instrument that measures lung volume
slide13
Air
  • Examples:
    • pneum/o/derm/a = collection of air under skin
    • pneum/o/thorax = collection of air in chest cavity
      • Air forced into cavity
    • pneum/o/py/o/thorax = collection of air and pus in chest cavity
    • pneum/o/hem/o/thorax = collection of air and blood in chest cavity
breathing
Breathing
  • pne/o = combining form
  • -pnea = suffix form
    • Used most often
  • Normal breathing rate for adults:
    • 12 to 16 breaths per minute
breathing1
Breathing
  • Inspire
    • To breathe in
  • Expire
    • To breathe out
animation
Animation

Click Here to Play Respiration Animation

sputum
Sputum
  • Combination of mucus and other fluids and substances in respiratory tract
  • ptyal/o = combining form for sputum and saliva
  • Examples:
    • hemo/pty/sis = coughing up sputum containing blood
    • ptyal/o/rrhea = drooling due to excess saliva
nasal cavity
Nasal Cavity
  • nas/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • nas/al = pertaining to nose
    • nas/itis = inflammation of nasal cavity
    • nas/o/scope = instrument used to examine nasal cavity
nasal cavity1
Nasal Cavity
  • Examples:
    • nas/o/pharyng/itis = inflammation of nose and pharynx
    • nas/o/front/al = pertaining to nasal and frontal bone
    • nas/o/lacrimal = pertaining to nose and lacrimal (tear) duct
    • epi/staxis = nosebleed
throat
Throat
  • pharynx = throat
  • pharyng/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • pharyng/o/pathy = any pharynx disease
    • pharyng/itis = inflammation of pharynx
    • pharyng/o/cele = herniation of pharynx
    • pharyng/o/lith = calculus in wall of pharynx
throat1
Throat
  • Examples:
    • pharyng/o/tomy = incision of throat
    • pharyng/o/plasty = surgical repair of throat
    • pharyng/o/scope = instrument used to examine throat
larynx
Larynx
  • Contains vocal cords
  • laryng/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • laryng/o/pathy = any larynx disease
    • laryng/itis = inflammation of larynx
    • laryng/algia = pain in larynx
    • laryng/o/spasm = spasm of larynx
larynx1
Larynx
  • Examples:
    • laryng/o/tomy = incision into larynx
    • laryng/o/stomy = surgical opening into larynx
    • laryng/o/scope = instrument used to examine larynx
trachea
Trachea
  • trachea = windpipe
  • trache/o = combining form
  • Examples:
    • trache/al = pertaining to trachea
    • endo/trache/al = within trachea
    • trache/algia = pain in trachea
    • trache/o/cele = herniation of trachea
trachea1
Trachea
  • Examples:
    • trache/o/rrhagia = hemorrhage from trachea
    • trache/o/py/osis = condition of trachea with pus formation
    • trache/o/scopy = examination of trachea
    • trache/o/tomy = incision into trachea
    • trache/ostomy = surgical creation of new opening in trachea
    • trache/o/laryng/o/tomy = incision of trachea and larynx
bronchi
Bronchi
  • bronch/o = combining form
  • bronchus = singular form
  • Examples:
    • bronch/itis = inflammation of bronchi
    • bronch/o/lith = calculus in bronchus
    • bronch/o/rrhagia = bronchial hemorrhage
    • bronch/o/spasm = spasm of bronchus
bronchi1
Bronchi
  • Examples:
    • bronch/o/scope = instrument used to examine bronchi
    • bronch/o/scopy = examination of bronchi with instrument
    • bronch/o/fiber/o/scopy = use of specialized, flexible scope to examine bronchi
    • bronch/o/stomy = formation of new opening in bronchus
    • bronch/o/rrhaphy = suturing of bronchus
pleura
Pleura
  • Membrane around lungs
  • pleur = combining form
  • pleurae = plural form
  • Examples:
    • pleur/al = pertaining to pleura
    • pleur/itis and pleur/isy = inflammation of pleura
    • pleur/algia and pleur/o/dynia = pain in pleura
pleura1
Pleura
  • Examples:
    • pleur/o/lith = calculus in pleura
    • viscer/o/pleur/al = pertaining to membrane attached to lung
    • pleur/o/centesis = surgical puncturing of pleura
    • pleur/ectomy = excision of part of pleura
diaphragm
Diaphragm
  • Muscle that controls breathing
  • phren/o and diaphragm/o = combining forms
  • phren/ic and diaphragm/atic = adjectival forms
diaphragm1
Diaphragm
  • Examples:
    • diaphragm/aticbreathing = automatic breathing controlled by brain signaling diaphragm
    • phren/o/plegia = paralysis of diaphragm
    • phren/ectomy and phren/ic/ectomy = removal of portion of phrenic nerve
respiratory diseases
Respiratory Diseases
  • Croup
    • Characterized by resonant, barking cough
    • Occurs mostly in children
    • Caused by:
      • Viral infection
      • Allergic reaction
      • Inhalation of foreign object
respiratory diseases1
Respiratory Diseases
  • Asthma
    • Results in:
      • Spasms in bronchi
      • Wheezing cough
      • Inability to take complete breath
respiratory diseases2
Respiratory Diseases
  • Asthma
    • Brought on by:
      • Overexertion
      • Inhalation of irritants
      • Infection
      • Emotional distress
animation1
Animation

Click Here to Play Asthma Animation

respiratory diseases3
Respiratory Diseases
  • Emphysema
    • Terminal bronchioles and alveoli lose elasticity and ability to receive and expel air
    • Results in:
      • Shortness of breath
      • Chronic cough
      • Cyanosis
      • Wheezing
respiratory diseases4
Respiratory Diseases
  • Emphysema
    • Caused by:
      • Smoking cigarettes
      • Breathing dirty, polluted air
respiratory diseases5
Respiratory Diseases
  • Pertussis
    • Also known as whooping cough
    • Characterized by shrill, whooping inspiration and cough
    • Prevention:
      • Vaccination with DTaP for children
      • Vaccination with Tdap for adults
directional term left
Directional Term: Left
  • sinistr/o = combining form
  • Origin
    • Latin
    • sinister = left
  • Superstition that left side is bad or evil
directional term left1
Directional Term: Left
  • Examples:
    • sinistr/ad = toward left
    • sinistr/al = pertaining to left
    • sinistr/o/man/ual = left-handed
    • sinistr/o/ped/al = left-footed
    • sinistr/o/cardi/a = displacement of heart to left
    • sinistr/o/cerebr/al = pertaining to left half of cerebrum
directional term left2
Directional Term: Left
  • oculus sinister (OS) = left eye
  • auris sinister (AS) = left ear
directional term right
Directional Term: Right
  • dextr/o = combining form for right
  • Origin
    • Latin
    • dexter = right
  • Superstition that right side is good
directional term right1
Directional Term: Right
  • Examples:
    • dextr/ad = toward right
    • dextr/al = pertaining to right
    • dextr/o/man/ual = right-handed
    • dextr/o/ped/al = right-footed
    • dextr/o/cardi/a = displacement of heart to right
    • dextr/o/gastr/ia = displacement of stomach to right
directional term right2
Directional Term: Right
  • oculus dexter (OD) = right eye
  • auris dexter (AD) = right ear
slide47
Feet
  • pod/o and ped/i = combining forms
  • Examples:
    • pod/iatric = pertaining to feet
    • pod/iatry = medical specialty concerned with feet
    • pod/iatrist = doctor who diagnoses and treats conditions of feet
    • ped/i/algia and pod/algia = foot pain
hands
Hands
  • chir/o = combining form
  • Origin
    • Greek
    • cheir = hand
hands1
Hands
  • Examples:
    • chir/o/spasm = spasm of hand
    • chir/o/plasty = surgical repair of hand
    • chir/o/practors = specialists who use hands to manipulate body for therapy
      • E.g., spinal manipulation
pediatrics
Pediatrics
  • pedi/a = combining form for children
  • Origin
    • Greek
    • pedias = child
pediatrics1
Pediatrics
  • Examples:
    • pedi/a/trician = physician specialist who treats children
    • pedi/a/trics = medical specialty for treatment of children
gerontology
Gerontology
  • ger/i = old age
  • Examples:
    • ger/ont/o/logy = study of treatment of aging and elderly
    • ger/iatrics = medical specialty of treating diseases related to old age
psychiatry
Psychiatry
  • psych/iatry = study and treatment of mental illness
  • psych/iatrist = medical doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental disorders
  • psych/iatric = pertaining to psychiatry
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