An Introduction to Pro-poor Policies for Development since Reform and Opening-up. PROF. DR. LI XIAO-YUN. College of Humanities and Development China Agricultural University 2005.12. Contents. 1.Pro-poor micro-policies for development
An Introduction to Pro-poor Policies for Development since Reform and Opening-up
PROF. DR. LI XIAO-YUN
College of Humanities and Development
China Agricultural University
1.Pro-poor micro-policies for development
1.1The policies of education and human resource development
1.2Policies related to Social Securities
1.3Policies related to Agriculture and Environmental Protection
1.4 Policies related to the Land use
1.5Policies related to Infrastructural development
1.6 Policies related to Population and Family Planning
1.7 fiscal policies
2. Policies Conducive to the Development of the Urban Poor on the Micro Level
3. Regional Development Policies Conducive to the Development of the Poor on a Macro Level
4. The View Point of Scientific Development
5. Macro Economic Adjustment and Control Policies
6.Policies for Poverty Alleviation in Developing the Rural Area
1.1 the related policies of education and human resource development
Vocational education produce a large number of professional technical personnel in a timely manner and in line with market needs. And it is very important in promoting the development of the rural areas and farmers by providing the skills training in basic agricultural production.
The policy has lessened the economic burdens for those poor families from the western and mid-western regions , and increased enrollment rate for the compulsory education in those area.
The implementation of the policy had achieved impressive results in curbing arbitrary collections, particularly in compulsory education in rural areas, and had reduced the educational burden of farmers.
The implementation of this policy provides a guarantee for the educational facilities in those poor areas, and is beneficial to the development of compulsory education in rural areas. this policy is of great importance to the long-term development of human resources in rural areas.
The policy plays a basic safeguarding role in helping the poor student finish his studies in university and in uplift his overall qualities, and is, generally speaking, conducive to the long-term development of the poor.
The policy that gives children of migrant workers access to the local school relieves the heavy burden of paying additional fees for non-natives for education in the city.
The Sunlight Project, as one sponsored by the central government will continue to play the important role in strengthening the western and mid-western’s ability to export more workers.
the utilization of modern information technology makes possible the sharing of better resources across the country, which is a great impetus to the development of human resources in the vast poor areas in the middle and western regions.
1.2The social security policies
The implementation the rural minimal social security is of great significance for meeting the minimum needs of the rural poor and for upholding social justice, and provides a basic protection for the poor to further develop themselves.
The system, which is a guarantee of old people’s basic livelihood, helps change farmers’ traditional ideas, and is useful for promoting family planning, improving rural social security system, maintaining rural social stability, and for promoting the rural economy and social progress.
The supporting system for the five guarantees provides a means of basic living for the extremely poor.
middle & west
This arrangement gives back more in relative terms when one spends more. Therefore, it helps the patient avoid partial risks and burdens that come with serious illnesses.
Opinions of the Ministries of Civil Affairs, Public Health and Finance on the Implementation of the Rural Medical Aid System.
Rules for Aiding and Managing Tramps and Beggars with Secure Livelihood in the City.
Therefore, more need to be done in the protection of their rights and interests, and in identifying and meeting their needs in the daily population management and service.
1.3The Agricultural and Environmental Protection Policies
This reform considerably relieves the burdens of the farmers, enhances their risk-taking abilities and their initiative in agricultural production.
Though the amount of direct subsidies was not much, it achieved the goal of stimulating farmers to grow more grains, reduced farmers’ burdens and increased their income
the policy has played a positive part in boosting farmers enthusiasm for growing grains, with a profound influence on those impoverished peasants. The stability and security of grain production, and the maintaining and further improving of farmers’ income have become a major issue.
poor cannot afford thus benefit directly from this policy, but the subsidy is conducive to push forward the agricultural development of those poor regions.
The policy is also of great significance to the development of poverty-stricken areas, especially those places that are ecologically vulnerable. Impoverished peasants can invest their surplus labor into the betterment of family life in addition to the guaranteed grains obtained for the conversion of land to forestry.
the compensation for the ecological benefits of national forests gives the new means of livelihood, which partially offset their losses stemming from the preservation of the forests.
The attack from environmental disasters is earthshaking to the already poverty-stricken people. So, a scientific reasonable and strict environmental evaluation policy is significant to the development of the poor.
1.4 The Land Policies
The biggest difference lies in the fact that the legally acknowledges the turnover of land；the new land policy makes a long-term investment in land possible
The carrying out of the national basic farmland protection policies secures the livelihood of the poor in some degree as well as maintains certain amount of land for grain yielding and ensures grain safety.
To the poor peasants without farmland, with the compensation maintaining their basic living level, they can put more labor resources and other resources into other sources of living, which is beneficial to their long-term development.
The policies, on the one hand, regulates the building performances of large and medium-sized water and hydro-power project, on the other hand, provides the farmers, especially those in poverty, a security for livelihood as well as long term development.
1.5 The Infrastructure Policies
the State’s huge investment has stimulated the macro economic development；the policy reduced the burdens of the rural people and increased the rural consumption of electric facility ; improved their capacity by attained more information outside
1.6 Policies Related to Family Planning
We can say the current household register system locked the desire, hands and feet of the poor, even their destiny.
1.7 The fiscal Policies
The specific fiscal expense fee includes: agricultural infrastructure construction expense, three-project fee for agricultural technological development and social security in rural areas, fiscal subsidy on price and subsidy on purchasing price of agricultural produces.
The original intention of micro-credit policy implementation was to help the poverty-stricken households gain lower risk credit support and to provide funding support for their further development and become rich.
2.1 Re-employment policies for the lay offs
Promote the re-employment
Can support necessary credit for re-employment of the lay offs
Ensure the basic living for urban poor, and help them development in sustainable
The policy provides livelihood security resources for the employees with the possibility of unemployment in the future.
the policy is of great importance to the security of the special rights and benefits of the female employees. It’s also significant to the security of the rights and benefits of the poor employees.
The west region covering an area of 6.85 million square kilometers, 71% of the whole country and the population is 365 million, 29% of the whole country.