History of Aquatic Science. This unit will give an introduction to the history of oceanic exploration and the major events & discoveries that shaped the course of Aquatic Science. On the following slides, the green sections are the most important. Underline words = vocabulary!.
The Egyptians established sea tradethroughoutthe Indian Ocean as early as 2300 B.C.
1938 - 1756 B.C. a canal was built, the Isthmus of Suez, to navigate ships across land.
The canal operated until 775 A.D.Egyptian Technology
A stone carving from the 1st century AD shows the kind of ship that the Phoenicians used on the Mediterranean Sea.
The Granger Collection, New York
200 B.C. – the Greek Eratosthenesmathematically calculated the circumference of the Earth to be 40,000 km.
The circumference is 40,032 km.
2,200 years ago his math was good enough to be off only 32 km!Amazing Math!
Eratosthenes knew that at noon on the summer solstice the Sun is directly overhead at Syene (a city)….He also knew the distance between Syene and Alexandria (another city), which, combined with his measurement of the solar angle a between the Sun and the vertical, enabled him to calculate Earth's circumference.
From Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Exhumed Viking ship;
Viking Ship Museum, Oslo, Norway. Image
From 1872 to 1876, the ship HMS Challenger Expedition led by Sir Charles Wyville Thomsongathered more data in its time than all other data to date.
It was this voyage that discovered the world’s deepest ocean trench, the Marianas Trench, now sometimes called the Challenger Deep.The Challenger
1898 – The world wars were the catalyst for US oceanographic research; invention of the 1st gas engine & battery powered submarine bought by US government in 1900.
Development of technology including electronic equipment, deep sea drilling programs, (1916) SONAR, use of GPS (global positioning system) and satellites.20th Century
Designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and built in 1962,Alvinhastraveled around the world completing 4,162 dives.
Alvin has mechanical arms and in 1966 helped to locate a H-bomb that was lost in the Mediterranean Sea.
In 1979, Alvinand its crew discovered black smokers on the sea floor.Alvin