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Kesler Engineering, Inc. Fired Heater Sentinel. Introduction to KEI. KEI Established 1979 by Michael Kesler Co-Author of Lee-Kesler Correlation for Thermodynamic Properties of Mixtures Developed First Industry General Process Simulator (MW Kellogg -1958) Main Business Process Engineering

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Kesler Engineering, Inc.

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Kesler engineering inc l.jpg

Kesler Engineering, Inc.

Fired Heater Sentinel


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Introduction to KEI

  • KEI Established 1979 by Michael Kesler

    • Co-Author of Lee-Kesler Correlation for Thermodynamic Properties of Mixtures

    • Developed First Industry General Process Simulator (MW Kellogg -1958)

  • Main Business

    • Process Engineering

    • Software Products

      • Sophisticated highly focused models that work on-line with PI and ProcessBook

  • KEI is Partly Owned by OSI Software


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Problem Statement

  • Correct operation of fired heaters has a large impact on the profitability and safety of plants

  • Information required for proper operation is obtainable from raw process data only with the aid of detailed models designed for real-time operations


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Coking and Scaling

  • Process Fluids Are Heated to Thermal Stability Limits to Improve Product Quality and Unit Throughput.

  • Exceeding Thermal Stability Limits Results in Coke Laydown (or Scaling). This is irreversible during operations.

  • Coking and Scaling Result in High Tube Metal Temperature. Heater Duty Must Be Reduced to Eliminate Risk of Tube Rupture.


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Economics

  • Over-All Process and Fired Side Efficiency Calculations

    • Process Side Calculations Much More Accurate

    • Requires Flash and Composition (obtained from reconstituted product specs and flows)

  • Immediate Notification of Abnormal Situation

    • Sensor Malfunction

    • Inefficient Operation

    • Equipment Failure


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Economics

  • Calculation of Lost $ Due to Excess Air

  • Calculation of Lost $ Due to Heater Flooding/Bogging

  • Calculation of Lost $ Due to Capacity Reduction From Coking/Fouling

  • Advice on Which Heater to Clean and When


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Heater Health

  • Heater Health Baseline Obtained From Historical Data

  • Pass by Pass Calculation and Monitoring of:

    • Duty

    • Heat Flux

    • Mean Metal Temperature

    • Convection and Radiant Section Duty

    • Coking Thickness


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Heater Health

  • Indication of Coking Events

  • Monitoring of Convection Section After-Burning

  • Convection Section Fouling

    • Long Term Ratio of Convection Section Heat Input to Total Heat Input

    • Draft Limit at Arch, Stack Damper Open, Firing Within Historical Limits


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Safety

  • Key is Calculation of Convection and Radiant Section Duties

    • Requires Process Flash and Composition (obtained from reconstituted product specs and flows)

  • Abnormally High Individual Pass Convection Section Duty Suggests Convection Section Seam Split

  • Increase in COT (Duty Ratios Unchanged), Suggests Radiant Section Leak


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Implementation

  • Easy to Use Setup Wizard

    • Guides You Through Configuration and Selection of PI Tags

    • Makes Intelligent Assumptions When Data or Instrumentation Is Not Available

    • Detailed Knowledge of Heater Geometry and Burner Characteristics is Not Required

  • Intuitive - Little or No Training Required


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Models: COM Objects

  • Use the same model for off-line what-if analysis

    • Excel spreadsheets, VB applications

  • Open equation model format permits flexible case studies

    • “How much fuel would be required if stack temperature was 550ºF?”

  • On-line case studies


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Fired Heater Sentinel - Value

  • A 2% Increase In Efficiency For a 200 MM Btu/hr Heater Results in a Savings of US$70,000/yr

  • If Fired Heater Is the Plant Constraint, 1% Increase in Heat Transfer (by Preventing Coking) Will Increase Throughput by 1%

    • Up to US$1 Million/yr in Refining Margins for a 100,000 BPD Refinery


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