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Introduction to Phonemic Awareness & Phonics. “I know how to spell S”. “E - S”. Although a bit mixed up …. Joseph had a beginning inkling that letters and sounds work together. Goal of Reading. We read for many purposes We read to get meaning from the text (NRP)

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Introduction to Phonemic Awareness & Phonics

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Introduction toPhonemic Awareness &Phonics

“I know how to spell S”

“E - S”

Although a bit mixed up …

Joseph had a beginning inkling that letters and sounds work together

Goal of Reading

We read for many purposes

We read to get meaning from the text (NRP)

Reading involves the manipulation of a complex reading process to get meaning

Interactive Model

Prior knowledge, experiences, skills, strategies, interest, purpose

Words, text and situation features,author’s message, assumptions about reader, difficulty

Interactive Model of Reading

National Reading Panel

Phonemic Awareness





Miscue Analysis

Allows understanding of way reader is using phonics when reading in context

Different to reading word lists where reading in isolation

List miscues and look for patterns based on the phonics sequence

Phonemic Awareness

Talk with your neighbor…What is Phonemic Awareness?

First, let’s define what we’re talking about …


Smallest meaningful unit of sound in spoken language


/h/ /e/ /n/


/b/ /l/ /e/ /n/ /d/



/s/ /p/ /e/ /ch/


/n/ /i/ /t/

Phonemic Awareness

Understand howspoken languagecan be broken downinto individual sounds


Understand howlettersrepresent speech sounds

Phonemic Awareness

Phonemes - smallest units of sound in a language

Phonemes 44 phonemes in English

Phonemic Awareness is the aural discrimination of phonemes

Hearing the sounds in words

A type of Phonological Awareness

Umbrella concept for different sound awareness

i.e. word, syllable, rhyme, & phonemic awareness

Different from Phonics which is letter-sound relationships (aural and visual)

  • Read through the activity your group has been given

  • Prepare a 2 minute presentation to the class that

    • Describes the nature of the activity

    • Describes benefits and weaknesses of the activity

    • Determines if it is teaching students phonemic awareness

Activity: Understanding Phonemic Awareness

PA and Phonics Help Readers

  • See the connection between what we say and what we read

  • Manipulate sounds and letters

  • Understand how words work in reading and spelling

Think of them as …

The “starter motors”of reading comprehension

Common Types of Phonemic Awareness


Hear and isolate sounds in initial, medial or final positions in word (e.g. hear bat, ball and say bell)


Pronounce each phoneme in order as it occurs in word (hear bat and say b-a-t)


Combine phonemes to make a word (hear sh-ip and say ship)


Add or delete sounds in word to make new word (hear add a “t” to an” and say ant; replace the sound “d” in sad with a “t” and say sat)

Beginning sound of “dog” is /d/


Beginning letter of “dog” is d

PA (sounds)

Phonics (letters)

“hat” is /h/ /a/ /t/


hat is spelled h-a-t



/d/ /o/ /g/ is “dog”


d - o - g spells “dog”



Take off the last sound of “cart” and you get “car”

CART is spelled c-a-r-t



If you take off the t



you get “car”

ELL Students

Each language has its own phonetic structure

E.g. None of the English short vowel sounds or the final blends are in Spanish

E.g. English has 15 vowel sounds and Spanish has 5

Learn the differences (you & students)

Differentiate Instruction

Early Literacy Profile

Areas of Emergent Literacy we will assess

Rhyme Awareness

Phonemic Awareness – isolating sounds

Letter Recognition

We will leave Emergent Writing


Called different things:

Grapho-phonic cues

Letter-sound associations

Sound-symbol correspondences

All refer to students knowing the relationship between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language.

Goals of Phonics Instruction

To help children learn and use the alphabetic principle

Enables recognition of familiar words accurately and automatically

Enables "decoding” of new words.

Research on Phonics Instruction…

Improves K-1 word recognition and spelling

Improves reading comprehension

Effective for various social and economic groups

Beneficial for struggling readers

Most effective when introduced early

Is not an entire reading program

Use Three Approaches to Phonics Instruction

Embedded Phonics— phonics skills learned by embedding phonics instruction in text reading.

Implicit and relies on incidental learning

Contextualized and meaningful

Analytic Phonics— Teach students to analyze letter-sound relations in known whole words to detect patterns and split word into parts

Focus on whole to part (to whole) word reading

Avoids pronouncing sounds in isolation

Helps with non-decodable words

Synthetic Phonics—Teach students all sounds, then letters, then how to convert letters into sounds and then blend the sounds to form recognizable words.

Considered an isolated skills approach, decontextualized

Often uses multi-sensory approaches (e.g. clay)

Most often used for stalled readers

Sequence of Instruction

Lists differ slightly

Idea is to build from simple to complex

Single consonants (names and sounds; order from front to back of mouth)

Short vowels (sounds of vowels; as in cat, peg, bin)

Consonant Vowel Consonant words (CVC; e.g. cab, pic, hen)

Beginning blends (CCVC; e.g. bl, cl, sw, st)

Final blends (CVCC; e.g. ink, ang, ump)

Beginning and end consonant digraphs (two consonants, one sound; e.g. chip, sash)

Long vowels with silent e (names of vowels; e.g. fade, joke)

Long vowels in Vowel diagraphs (two vowels, one sound, e.g. ai, ay, ea, ee, oa)

Dipthongs (two vowels, two sounds –almost; e.g. boil, hook, house)

Vowels controlled by r, l, and w (e.g. card, bird, bald, lawn, cow, flew)

See Handout for full sequencing

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