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Order Carnivora ≥11 families, >287 species

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Order Carnivora ≥11 families, >287 species •Naturally distributed on all continents (except possibly Australia) •Morphologically & behaviorally diverse •Economically important in most countries •Ecologically important. Order Carnivora Recognition characters (most/all related to carnivory):

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slide1

Order Carnivora ≥11 families, >287 species

•Naturally distributed on all continents (except possibly Australia)

•Morphologically & behaviorally diverse

•Economically important in most countries

•Ecologically important

slide2

Order Carnivora

Recognition characters (most/all related to carnivory):

Dental features (present in MOST species):

•Carnassial shear: P4/M1 (secondarily lost in some taxa)

•Canines large, conical

•Most have primitive # incisors (3/3)

Cranial features:

•Transverse glenoid fossa

•Sagittal crest often prominent, well developed

•Large brains, well developed zygomatic arch

Other features:

•Most are medium-sized

•Acute senses (hearing, sight, especially smell)

•Most are adept cursors---sprinting

•Simple stomach (cecum reduced or absent in most sp.)

slide3

Glenoid/ mandibular fossa

C-shaped: strong hinge,

minimizes lateral movement

and facilitates up & down

movement

(e.g., mustelids)

Omnivores (e.g., bears,

procyonids) have more “open”

glenoid fossa, permitting

lateral movement

slide4

Postcranial modifications:

•loss or reduction of clavicles

(increases stride length)

•fusion of carpal bones

(may add support for cursorial locomotion)

slide5

Fusion of centrale, scaphoid, & lunar bones

of wrist

Carnivora

Most non-carnivorans

slide6

Non-cursorial taxa

(e.g., ursids, procyonids)

Cursorial taxa

(e.g., canids, felids)

Increases stride length

slide7

Order Carnivora ≥11 families, >287 species

Suborder Feliformia (“cat like”)

Felidae (cats & their relatives)

Hyaenidae (hyenas, aardwolves)

Herpestidae (mongooses)

Viverridae (civets, genets)

Suborder Caniformia (“dog like”)

Canidae (dogs & their relatives)

Ursidae (bears)

Mustelidae (weasels, otters, etc., skunks?)

Procyonidae (raccoon, coati, kinkajou)

Odobenidae (walrus)

Otariidae (sea lions)

Phocidae (seals)

Pinnipeds

slide8

Creodonts†

Feliformia

(‘cat-like’)

Caniformia

(‘dog-like’)

slide9

Creodonts---Fossil carnivorans, late Cretaceous-Miocene

Outcompeted by more “modern” carnivorans?

slide10

18 genera, 40 sp.

All continents ‘cept Austr.,

Antarctica

slide11

Felids: “The ultimate killing machines”

Most specialized hunters of the carnivorans,

relying almost exclusively on prey that they

have killed themselves.

short rostrum=increased

bite force at canines

slide12

“Big” vs “small” cats

Felis

& others

Panthera

slide13

Retractile (=retractable) claws? PROTRACTILE!

terminal phalanx, supporting claw

edge of fleshy sheath

around claw

horny claw

elastic ligament holds

claw in (retracted)

pads

tendon of extensor muscle

middle phalanx

tendon of flexor muscle

slide14

tendon at wrist

holding ligaments in place

ligaments of extensor muscle

terminal phalanx

claw

slide15

4 genera, 4 sp.

Africa, SW Asia

slide17

18 genera, 37 sp.

Africa, S. & SE Asia

slide18

20 genera, 34 sp.

Africa, S. & SE Asia

slide19

(Herpestidae)

(Herpestidae)

(Viverridae)

(Viverridae)

(Viverridae)

slide20

14 genera, 34 sp.

All continents ‘cept Antarctica

slide21

6 genera, 9 sp.

N. & S. America, Eurasia

slide23

25 genera, 65 sp.

Worldwide ‘cept

Australia, Madagascar

slide25

6 genera, 18 sp.

N. & S. America

slide26

“Hypercarnivory”---too much of a

good thing?

Stenotopic: restricted range of habitats

or ecological conditions

Eurytopic: wide range of habitats

or ecological conditions

slide27

•reduced molars &

non-carnassial P’s

(=reduced grinding)

•enlarged carnassials

& canines

•short rostrum

•meat-only diet

Hypercarnivory

Mesocarnivory

•unreduced or

enlarged molars

•reduced carnassials

•long rostrum

•omnivorous diet

Hypocarnivory

slide28

Smilodon (extinct

sabre-tooth cat)

Modern felid

masseter muscle relaxes more, allowing

wide open gape

slide30

Smilodon

Thylacosmilus

(extinct S. American

hypercarnivorous marsupial)

•Hypercarnivory has evolved several times (and in several

orders)

•Usually correlated with LARGE BODY SIZE...

slide31

Cope’s Rule: Evolutionary trend towards

larger body size.

Common among mammals.

Advantages: -Avoid predators

-Enhance reproductive success

-Improve thermal effiency

-Interspecific competition for food

-Capture larger prey (prey size

often increases over time)

slide32

Prey size (cont.)

Tradeoff between foraging effort & food acquired imposes energetic constraint.

Smaller carnivores can subist on small prey (e.g., insects, rodents).

Larger carnivores (> ca. 21 g)--small prey not worth the energy expended.

Larger body size leads to HYPERCARNIVORY and overspecialization?

slide33

Hypercarnivory in N. American canids

Canidae---3 subfamilies

Caninae

Hesperocyoninae† (>28 sp.)

Borophaginae† (>68 sp.)

Diverse in Miocene; peak of 25 contemporaneous

species. (compare with 7 extant canids in N.S.

today)

N. America endemics

slide34

Cope’s Rule

Hesperocyoninae†

Borophaginae†

slide35

1st appearance of

hypercarnivorous

borophagines

1st appearance of

hypercarnivorous

hesperocyonines

Millions of years ago

slide36

“Constraint” Any factor that tends to slow the rate of

adaptive evolution.

Reversal to more generalized morphology rare in

highly specialized taxa.

Hypercarnivory may lead to “adaptive peak” that can’t

be descended...

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