Grass weed management with IPM
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Grass weed management with IPM Denmark. MODULE C17. Know your weeds – grass weeds. IPM measures for controlling winter annual grass weeds:. A healthy crop rotation Delayed sowing Optimal plant density Focused soil cultivation, including Stale seedbed Stubble cultivation Ploughing

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Grass weed management with IPM Denmark

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Grass weed management with ipm denmark

Grass weed management with IPM

Denmark

MODULE C17


Know your weeds grass weeds

Know your weeds – grass weeds

IPM measures for controlling winter annual grass weeds:

  • A healthy crop rotation

  • Delayed sowing

  • Optimal plant density

  • Focused soil cultivation, including

    • Stale seedbed

    • Stubble cultivation

    • Ploughing

  • Glyphosate before sowing the main crop

  • Optimized use of herbicides

IPM means that all plant protection measures have to be used wisely, otherwise problems like resistance may develop rapidly


Importance of the crop rotation

Importance of the crop rotation

A varied crop rotation will be able prevent grass weeds

- But remember economic sustainability!

Example of crop rotation suggested by the ENDURE RA2.6 participants for use under northern European conditions on a pig producing farm

Apera spica-venti (Loose Silky-bent)

Alopecurus myosuroides (Black grass)

Examples of grass weeds sensitive to a varied crop rotation


Importance of the crop rotation1

Importance of the crop rotation

The effect of a varied crop rotation:

Crop rotation with 50 % cereals

Crop rotation with 75 % cereals

Broadleaved weeds

Plants/m2

Apera spica-venti

With weed control

With weed control

No weed control

No weed control

German experiments


Sowing date

Sowing date

Early sowing promotes grass weed infestation

Amount of Alopecurus myosuroides in winter wheat at harvest as a function of the sowing time

Plants/m2

Normal sowing

Early sowing


Soil management and grass weed seeds

Soil management and grass weed seeds

Combining soil cultivation and herbicides provides effective control of grass weeds:

Amount of Apera spica-venti in a crop rotation with 80 % winter cereals

Plants/m2

Ploughed

Reduced cultivation

No weed control

25 % normal doze

50 % normal doze

100 % normal doze


Know your weeds important differences

Know your weeds – important differences

Effective control is achieved through knowledge of the weed.

(1): For climatic conditions similar to the Danish


Special case bromus sterilis

Special case– Bromussterilis

Major reduction of seed bank without using herbicides


Traits of the varieties

Traits of the varieties

Prioritized list for choice of winter cereal variety:

Competition against weeds is not of highest importance when choosing variety!

  • Winter hardiness

  • Yield

  • Quality (fodder, grain etc.)

  • Risk of lodging

  • Tolerance towards diseases (varies among species)

  • Competition against weeds

Use available information about the yield potential, disease resistance etc.


Chemical weed control

Chemical weed control

Yield increase from chemical weed control

Apera

spica-venti

Poa annua &

Dicot weeds

Lolium sp.

Dicot weeds

Source: The Danish National Field Trials®2008


Chemical weed control1

Chemical weed control

  • Choose the right product for the right job!

  • Use as little as possible but as much as needed

  • Use Decision Support Systems where available, e.g. Crop Protection online: http://pvo.planteinfo.dk/cp/menu/menu.asp?id=demo&subjectid=1&language=en

  • It is a challenge to treat fields individually – where large – scale farming is an important parameter, it may e.g. be relevant to think about a basic- and advanced treatment

    • Divide e.g. the fields in groups according to problem

  • Consider margin and patch spraying in larger scale


Prevention of resistance

Prevention of resistance

  • Change between products with different modes of action

  • Avoid using Sulfunylurea-products more than once every growing season

  • Change between modes of action

This wheat field was in the spring treated with 2 ALS-inhibiting herbicides: 110 g Broadway (florasulam+pyroxulam) and app. 0.1 l Iodosulfuron.

Loliumperenne is still growing almost unaffected


Dispersal of grass weed seeds

Dispersal of grass weed seeds

  • Through machinery

    • As the farms grow bigger, the machinery has to cover larger areas, and seeds are very likely to be spread

  • Therefore: remember proper hygiene

    • This means:

      • Harvest the infested fields last, whenever possible

      • Clean machinery when leaving an infested field

      • Keep a stable field margin with perennial herbs, to avoid weed infestations to spread from here


Evaluation of the effort

Evaluation of the effort

  • Before harvest, make a field walk to:

    • Follow up on the crop protection performed through the season

    • Plan the strategy for the next season

    • Make/update the weed map

  • A good result starts with proper planning!

  • Weed map:


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