Explain why phenol reacts with NaOH while it does not react with NaHCO
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Explain why phenol reacts with NaOH while it does not react with NaHCO 3. Explain the difference in reaction of the compounds toward Lucas Reagent. Explain the difference in reaction of the compounds with chromic acid. Suggest a test reagent for Phenol. Explain your choice briefly.

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Explain why phenol reacts with NaOH while it does not react with NaHCO 3 . .

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Explain why phenol reacts with NaOH while it does not react with NaHCO3. .

Explain the difference in reaction of the compounds toward Lucas Reagent.

Explain the difference in reaction of the compounds with chromic acid.

Suggest a test reagent for Phenol. Explain your choice briefly.

State TWO methods for the formation of each of the alkanols A-C and phenol.

Account for the browning of an apple on exposure to air for some time.


  • Alcoholsaresolubleinwater.Analcoholhastwoparts:hydrophilic–OHgroupandhydrophobichydrocarbonpart.Thelargehydrocarboninlong-chainalcoholslimitstheaqueoussolubilityofsuchalcohols.

  • Unlikealcohol,phenolisweaklyacidicastheconjugatebaseisresonance-stabilized.However,itsacidicstrengthisstrongenoughtoneutralizeOH-butnotstrongenoughtoneutralizeNaHCO3.ItcannotliberateCO2fromHCO3-.

  • TertiaryalcoholsrapidlyreactwithLucasreagenttoformtertiarychloride,whichproducesimmediateturbidityinthereagent.PrimaryalcoholscannotformstableprimarycarbocationuponprotonationwithLucasreagentandthusshowveryslowornegativeLucastest.


  • PrimaryalcoholscanbeoxidizedbyacidifiedK2Cr2O7orchromicacidtocarboxylicacid. Secondaryalcoholscanbeoxidizedtoketonewhiletertiaryalcoholscanonlybeoxidizedinsevereconditions.

  • Unlikealcohol,phenolgivesvioletcolorationwithneutraliron(III)chlorideasaresultofcomplexformation.

  • BenzenesulphonicacidreactswithNaOHat300oCtogivephenol. AnilinereactswithHNO2at0oCtogivestablearyldiazoniumsaltwhicheasilygives phenoluponhydrolysis.

  • Primaryandsecondaryalcohols canbeformedfromthehydrationofalkenesinacidicmedium.TheyarealsoformedrespectivelyfromaldehydeandketonebyreductionwithNaBH4.Tertiaryalcoholsareformedbythehydrolysisoftertiarychlorideatlowertemperatures.


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