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Part Six : Placing Strategy. ( Chapter12-Chapter13). Distribution channel (marketing channel) (P.362)

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Part Six : Placing Strategy

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Part Six :

Placing Strategy

( Chapter12-Chapter13)


Distribution channel (marketing channel)

(P.362)

  • A set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user.


(P.364)

Distribution channel functions

Information(信息)

Physical

Distribution(物流)

Promotion(促销)

Financing(融资)

Contact( 联系)

Matching (适应)

Risk taking(风险分担)

Negotiation(谈判)


Physical flow

(物流)

Ownership flow

(商流)

Financial flow

(金融流)

Marketing flows (营销流)

Promotion flow

(促销流)

Information flow

(信息流)


M

C

Customer marketing channels(P.364)

  • Channel 1

  • Channel 2

  • Channel 3

  • Channel 4

M

R

C

M

W

R

C

M

W

Jobber

R

C


  • Business marketing channels

  • Channel 1

  • Channel 2

  • Channel 3

  • Channel 4

M

IC

M

D

IC

M

R&S

IC

M

R&S

D

IC


我国计划经济时期的商品分销渠道

进口商品

生产企业

一级站

二级站

三级站

外贸公司

极少数

大型零售店

少数大中型

零售店

一般

零售店

消费者


我国改革后的商品分销渠道

生产企业

自设销售

系统

中间商

交易市场

专卖与

直销

零售商店

消费者


Vertical Marketing Systems)(垂直营销系统)

Manufacturer

Manufacturer

(P.367)

conventional vertical(VMS)

wholesaler

Wholesaler

Retailer

Retailer

Customer

Customer


VMS

  • Vertical Marketing System(VMS)(垂直营销系统)

Corporate

VMS

Contractual

VMS

Administered

VMS

Wholesaler-

sponsored

voluntary

chains

Retailer

cooperatives

Franchise

organizations


连锁经营的主要形式:

正规连锁:(Corporate VMS)

同一资本所有;总部直接控制;财务统一核算。

特许连锁:(Franchise organization)

契约加盟连锁;统一开展经营;财务分别核算。

自由连锁:(Voluntary chains )

自愿连锁协作;实行统购分销;财务分别核算。


Ownership

Corporate

VMS

  • Difference between the VMS types

Combines

through

Contractual

VMS

Contract

Administered

VMS

Size and power


  • Horizontal Marketing System(水平营销系统)

  • A channel arrangement in which tow or more companies at one level join together to follow a new marketing opportunity。

Firm A

Firm B

Firm C

Distribution channel

Target markets


  • Hybrid Marketing System(综合营销系统)

  • Multi-channel distribution systems in which a single firm sets up tow or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments。

Customer

segment1

Catalogs,telephone

Retailer

Customer

segment2

Producer

Business

segment1

Detailer

Distributors

Business

segment2

Sales force


Channel Design Decisions (P.372-376)

Analyzing

consumer

service needs.

Setting the

channel

objectives

and constraints

Identifying major

alternatives.

Evaluating the

major alternatives.

Designing

distribution

channel.


Customer

Company

Company sales force

  • Types of industrial goods intermediaries

Manufacturer’s agency

Industrial distributors


Intensive

distribution

(密集分销)

As many outlets

as possible

Exclusive

distribution

(独家分销)

Limited number

of dealer have

exclusive right

to distribute

Selective

distribution

(选择分销)

More than one

but fewer

than all

Number of marketing intermediaries (P.374)


Channel management decisions (P.377)

Selecting

channel

members.

Motivating

channel

members.

Evaluating

channel

members


Retailing and Wholesaling

  • Retailing :All activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for their personal, non-business use.

  • Wholesaling :All activities involved in selling goods and services to those buying for resale or business use .


Different Ways to Classify Retail Outlets

Amount of service

Self-service

Limited service

Full service

Product line sold

Specialty store

Department store

Supermarket

Convenience store

Superstore

Hyper-market

Category killer

Relative Price

Discount store

Off-price retailers

Catalog showroom

Factory outlets

Warehouse club

Control of Outlets

Corporate chain

Voluntary chain

retailer cooperative

Franchise

Merchandising

Conglomerate (集成商)

Type of Store Cluster

Shopping mall

Central business district

Regional shopping center

Community shopping center

Neighborhood shopping

center


Non-store Retailing

Direct

Marketing

Automatic

Vending

Direct

selling


Major types of Wholesaler

Merchant Brokers and Manufacturers’ sales

Wholesalers Agent Branches and Office

Full-service wholesalers Brokers Sale branch & offices

wholesaler merchants Agents Purchasing office

industrial distributors

Limited-service wholesalers

cash-and-carry wholesalers

truck wholesalers

drop shippers

rack jobbers…….


Physical distribution(or marketing logistics) P.379

The tasks involved in planning, implementing, and controlling the physical flow of materials, final goods, and related information from points of origin to points of consumption to meet consumer requirements at a point.


  • Major logistics functions

  • Order processing;

  • Warehousing ;

  • inventory;

  • transportation.


Third-party logistics provider(P.387)

An independent logistics provider that performs any of all functions required to get their clients’ product to market.


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