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European Parliament. Producers’ Organisations and the Common Market Organisation of fishery products Brussels, 5th November 2008 Dominique AVIAT, AND International. Contents. Introduction : context, methodology approach Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

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European Parliament

Producers’ Organisations

and the Common Market Organisation

of fishery products

Brussels, 5th November 2008

Dominique AVIAT, AND International


Contents

  • Introduction : context, methodology approach

  • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

  • Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

  • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the competitiveness of the industry

  • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the employment in the fisheries sector

  • General conclusion : which prospects for a CMO in line

    with the stakes and the globalisation of the markets ?


Contents

  • Introduction : context, methodology approach

  • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

  • Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

  • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the competitiveness of the industry

  • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the employment in the fisheries sector

  • General conclusion : which prospects for a CMO in line

    with the stakes and the globalisation of the markets ?


Introduction : methodology approach

  • Framework contract FISH/2006/22 : evaluation of the CMO as laid down in Council Regulation (EC) N°104/2000

  • Time scope : 2001-2007

  • Geographical scope : EU-27

  • Methodology : 3 phases

    • Structuring : October-December 2007

    • Observing : January-April 2008

    • Analysing-Judging : May-June 2008

  • Methodology : 4 themes

    • Income of producers

    • Market development and balance

    • Consumer aspects and quality

    • Coherence with CFP


  • Introduction : methodology approach

    • Core of the evaluation work : replies to of the 7 evaluation questions :

      • Effects of CMO on stability of markets

      • Effects of CMO on competitiveness of the sector

      • Effects of CMO on employment

      • Effects of CMO on producers’ income

      • Effects of CMO on product quality

      • Effects of CMO on consumers’ knowledge about fishery products

      • Effects of CMO on development of sustainable fisheries


    Contents

    • Introduction : context, methodology approach

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the competitiveness of the industry

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the employment in the fisheries sector

    • General conclusion : which prospects for a CMO in line

      with the stakes and the globalisation of the markets ?


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Data on POs : 2 main sources :

      • Mail survey to all POs

        • Response rate : 39%

    • 100 interviews in 10 MS :

      • POs

      • National authorities

      • Professional organisations

      • Experts (Research institutes, NGOs, …)


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • POs’ main features : origin and role

      • Origin :

        • Ex-nihilo creation

        • Recognition of a pre-existing organisation

        • Merger

      • Motivations of PO’s constitution

        • Strengthening of marketing capacities

        • Strengthening of possibilities of collective action

        • Need to regulate the supply to adapt it to the demand

        • Need to concentrate the supply

      • Reasons of membership for producers

        • Scope for benefiting from a marketing strategy or product valorization actions

        • Strengthening of political action possibilities

        • Access to better adapted fishing quotas

        • Scope for access to withdrawals and carry-overs


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • POs’ main features : POs’ development


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • POs’ main features : POs’ development

      • Evolution of recognition withdrawals


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • POs’ main features : recognition, representativeness and concentration of POs

    • 1 of the 3 following conditions to be fulfilled

    • Production criteria more used than vessel criterion :

      • Criterion 1 : 19% of POs

      • Criterion 2 : 43% of POs

      • Criterion 3 : 38% of POs

      • Conditions 2 and 3 cumulated in several MS


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • POs’ main features : recognition, representativeness and concentration of POs

    • Representativeness level :

      • Very important for relevance and effectiveness of measures taken

      • 70% on average

      • Varies according to MS and regions

    • Concentration

      • 53% of POs in 3 MS


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • POs’ main features : structuration level in MS

    • On average 57% of EU fishermen are members of a PO

    • Structuration level varies according to MS, activity and species

      • 3 groups of MS :

        • Strongly organized countries (75% to 90% of fishermen are members of a PO) : BE, DK, NL, PT, SE, UK.

        • Average countries (between 35% and 75%) : DE, ES, FR, …

        • New MS, in early stage of structuration (less than 35%) : LV, PL, …

      • Activity :

        • Example of Spain :

          • Frozen fish producers : 80% POs

          • Fresh fish producers : 35% POs

      • Species : structuration level depends on location of fishing grounds, type of fishing, …


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • POs’ main features : operational programmes (OPs)

    • OPs = one of the main points of the 2000 review

    • Obligation of PO’s : draw up every year an OP comprising :

      • the marketing strategy,

      • a catch plan,

      • anticipatory measures to adjust the supply of species difficult to market,

      • a system of internal penalties

  • OPs’ target = giving more responsibility to POs in the planning of production and marketing of fishery products

  • Content and quality of OPs : extremely variable = from a very basic and purely administrative document to a real strategic document with a reflection on market and management of resources

  • Effectiveness of OPs : weak (a few local results on quality management and regulation of catches), but educational interest which could lead to medium-term results


  • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Assessment of the extension of rules

    • CMO regulation : if a PO is considered to be representative of production and marketing in one or more landing places, the MS may require non-member producers who market products within the same area to comply with rules of the PO.

    • Extension of rules : rarely used (in only 6 MS).

      • Grounds for underutilization : lack of clarity of the measure and complexity of the procedure

      • No need of the measure for POs representing 100% of landings in their area

    • Noticeable effects for POs using the measure, especially in addition to internal rules of limitation of daily catches


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Assessment of use of CMO measures and FIFG aid concerning quality

    • Assessment of plans to improve quality (PIQ)

      • PIQs give access to specific recognition and specific financial aid

      • PIQs must include :

        • Improvement in the quality of products onboard or in farm

        • Optimal maintenance of quality along the marketing

        • Description of the planned measures (including preparatory studies, training and investments)

      • Very weak success of the measure : only 5 plans submitted, 4 recognitions granted

      • Grounds for underutilization of the measure :

        • Measure little known to POs

        • PIQs demanding a lot of administrative work, costly and insufficiently subsidized

        • FIFG aids easier to obtain

           Improvement of product quality : much more achieved with FIFG aids than with CMO tools


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Effectiveness of the measures adopted by interbranch organisations and POs’ associations

    • Interbranch organisations (IOs)

      • Target of the measure : recognition of interbranch organisations aimed at improving structuration of production, transparency of the market and organisation of the sector

      • Very limited success of the measure :

        • Only 4 organisations recognized

        • No impact of IO recognition on power and capacity of IOs to structure the sector

        • IO recognition = rather a recognition a posteriori, a sort of label granted by EC to existing organisations

        • Measure not motivating enough for the creation of new IOs

        • Measure not offering an adequate framework (in particular transnational) to the organisation needs of the sector


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Effectiveness of the measures adopted by interbranch organisations and POs’ associations

    • POs’ associations at transnational level

      • Only 1 association recognized (Association of Danish and German POs producing North Sea shrimp)

      • Positive effects :

        • Concentration of supply strengthening of producers’ weight vs. buyers positive effect on prices and producers’ income

    Price of Noth Sea shrimp (crangon crangon) on the Dutch market(€/kg)


    Contents

    • Introduction : context, methodology approach

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the competitiveness of the industry

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the employment in the fisheries sector

    • General conclusion : which prospects for a CMO in line

      with the stakes and the globalisation of the markets ?


    Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

    • Measures :

      • Suspensions of common customs tariff duties

      • Autonomous tariff quotas

  • Noticeable and positive effects on supply of EU processing industry

    • CMO trade measures have allowed EU processors who cannot find volumes and/or prices adapted to their needs in EU to work competitively and to maintain their activity

    • Strong financial impact (e.g. : economies on Alaska pollack imports = 60 M€)

  • Positive effects on competitiveness and employment

    • Access to low price raw materials impact on margins maintenance of profitability of processing companies saving of associated jobs


  • Contents

    • Introduction : context, methodology approach

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the competitiveness of the industry

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the employment in the fisheries sector

    • General conclusion : which prospects for a CMO in line

      with the stakes and the globalisation of the markets ?


    Contribution of the CMO instruments to the competitiveness of the industry

    • Measures :

      • Strengthening of POs and IOs and obligation to define the marketing strategies in the OPs

      • Trade regime

  • Only the measures of trade with third countries have had a direct effect, but only for the processing industry

    • They have assured EU processors of supplies adapted to their needs in terms of volumes and prices to work competitively and to maintain their activity

    • They have had a net effect on economic performance of companies impact through the economy on raw materials

    • The application of these measures has not disturbed the EU production, which is in strong deficit on these markets (self-sufficiency rate of EU : 40% in 2006)


  • Contents

    • Introduction : context, methodology approach

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the competitiveness of the industry

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the employment in the fisheries sector

    • General conclusion : which prospects for a CMO in line

      with the stakes and the globalisation of the markets ?


    Contribution of the CMO instruments to the employment in the fisheries sector

    • Measures :

      • None of the CMO measures is aimed at direct intervention in favour of employment

      • Main tools concerned :

        • Stucturation of POs and IOs

        • Trade regime

  • CMO has no effect on fisheries employment, much more dependent on CFP, TACs, oil price and lack of appeal of fisheries jobs

  • Effects of CMOs on employment usually linked to volume direct aid to producers and first processors.

    CMO fishery : small level of financial aid to intervention (10 M€/year)


  • Contribution of the CMO instruments to the employment in the fisheries sector

    EAGFF expenses for CMOs in 2005


    Contribution of the CMO instruments to the employment in the fisheries sector

    • Professional structuration and concentration of supply : no effects on employment, except in some rare local cases

    • Only the measures of trade with third countries have a direct effect, but only for the processing industry

      • trade regime measures = effective tools to guarantee to processors an adequate supply with imported raw materials (whitefish, tuna, …) contribution to maintenance of companies and safeguarding of jobs

      • but CMO has not allowed to prevent relocation of canning companies in third countries with low labour cost


    Contents

    • Introduction : context, methodology approach

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning POs

    • Effectiveness of the measures concerning the trade with third countries

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the competitiveness of the industry

    • Contribution of the instruments of the CMO to the employment in the fisheries sector

    • General conclusion : which prospects for a CMO in line

      with the stakes and the globalisation of the markets ?


    General conclusion

    • CMO = a complex tool box, used in very various ways in EU

    • CMO = a logic of action and sets of measures inherited from agricultural policies, but without the financial means of agricultural CMOs

    • CMO = a not very interventionist and relatively efficient CMO (structuration and concentration of offer), which has assets for a transition towards a system in line with today’s stakes

    • CMO = very limited effects on competitiveness, income and employment

    • CMO = POs central actors in the system of market organisation and stabilization

    • PO tool = main element of capitalization of CMO

       With some adaptations and clarifications of their missions and with strengthened and more durable means POs can be relevant and potentially effective supports for the implementation of most CFP policies


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