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Anatomy. Integumentary System Lesson 1. Section Objectives:. Compare the structures and functions of the epidermis and dermis. Identify the role of the skin in responding to external stimuli. Outline the healing process that takes place when the skin is injured. What is skin.

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Integumentary System

Lesson 1

Section objectives

Section Objectives:

  • Compare the structures and functions of the epidermis and dermis.

  • Identify the role of the skin in responding to external stimuli.

  • Outline the healing process that takes place when the skin is injured.

What is skin

What is skin

Integumentary system

Integumentary System

  • Skin, the main organ of the integumentary (inh TE gyuh MEN tuh ree) system, is composed of layers of the four types of body tissues:

4 types of body tissue

4 Types of Body Tissue

  • 1. Connective tissue.

  • (Types are bone, tendon, cartilage, fat and blood.)

  • 2. Muscle tissue

  • 3. Epithelial tissue

  • 4. Nervous tissue

Skin composition

Skin Composition -

  • Layers made of 4 types of body tissues.

Connective tissue

Connective tissue -

  • binds together, supports and protects body structures.

  • (Types are bone, tendon, cartilage, fat and blood.)

  • Matrix - non living substance that separates the cells.

Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue -

  • group of cells that are specialized for contractions.

Cardiac Muscle

Epithelial tissue

Epithelial tissue -

  • covers the body and the organs.

Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue -

  • carries information throughout the body.

  • Neuron - nerve cell, conducts signals in the form of electrical impulses.

Did you know

Did You know

  • If the skin of a 150 lb person were spread out flat, it would cover approximately 20 square feet and weighs about 6 pounds.

Structure and functions of the integumentary system

Structure and Functions of the Integumentary System

  • Nervous tissue helps us detect external stimuli, such as pain or pressure.



Skin functions

Skin Functions -

  • 1. Sensations

  • 2. Protection

  • 3. Regulates internal temperature. (has tiny blood vessels help regulate various areas.) Normal body temperature is 98.6oF or 37 oC

  • 4. Vitamin D Synthesis (Lipid cholesterol can be converted by sunlight to Vit. D. Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium into the blood stream.

2 layers of the skin

2 Layers of the Skin



The skin

The Skin


Oil glands





1 epidermis

1. Epidermis

  • Outer layer , thin almost transparent.

  • Protects the skin from UV. Consists of 25 - 30 layers of dead, flattened cells .

  • These cells are constantly being shed.

  • Top layer is made of a waterproof protein called Keratin. This layer helps protect living cell layers and contributes to the skin’s elasticity.



  • Melanin - produced deeper in epidermis, helps give the skin its color. Melanin absorbs UV radiation in sunlight, preventing mutations in the DNA of the skin cells and other damaging effects.

Skin color

Skin color -

  • due to circulatory supply and pigment composition and concentration.

  • Melanin

  • genetically determined

  • Sunlight, UV

  • reduction in the blood flow may change skin color



  • Melanocytes produce melanin.

Skin hair and nails

Skin, Hair and Nails

Dermis the inner layer of skin

Dermis: The inner layer of skin

2 dermis

2. Dermis

  • Thick inner layer - produces collagen (a protein that makes your skin supple and strong.)

4 other structures of the dermis

4 Other Structures of the Dermis

1 sebaceous gland oil

1. Sebaceous Gland (Oil)

  • pores located at the surface of the skin, produces sebum (oil) to keep skin soft. Helps inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  • Acne - bacterial infection of sebaceous glands.

2 sweat glands

2. Sweat Glands

  • pores located at the surface of the skin. Help in temperature regulation and helps rid the body of wastes.

Sweat gland

Sweat Gland

  • About 900 ml of sweat is produced daily.

  • You have about 2 million sweat glands.

3 hair follicles

3. Hair Follicles

  • narrow cavities where hair grows from.

Hair follicles

Hair Follicles

  • Arrector Pili - Muscles that pull hair follicles so hair will lay at an angle; contraction of this muscle produces goose bumps, raises hair on head due to emotional crisis.

Hair follicles1

Hair Follicles

  • Shaft- extends away from the skin surface. Composed of dead epidermal cells.

Hair color

Hair Color

  • is determined by genes that direct the type and amount of pigment that epidermal melanocytes produce.

Hair color1

Hair Color

  • If these cells produce a lot of melanin – dark hair.

Hair color2

Hair Color

  • Intermediate amounts of melanin – blond hair.

Hair color3

Hair Color

  • If no melanin – hair is white.

Hair color4

Hair Color

  • The pigment trichosiderin produces – red hair.

Hair color5

Hair Color

  • A mixture of pigmented and unpigmented – gray hair.

4 hair nails

4. Hair/ Nails

  • made of dead epidermal cells made of keratin.

Hair nails


  • Cuticle - fold of skin which covers the root of nail



Subcutaneous layer hypodermis

Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)-

  • beneath the dermis, consists of lose connective and adipose tissue. The adipose tissue helps to insulates the body.



  • is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.

  • Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue.



Additional integumentary information

Additional Integumentary Information

Did you know1

Did You Know? –

  • The thumbnail goes the slowest; the middle nail grows the fastest.

Not sure I can tell from this picture

Lee redmond

Lee Redmond

And can you imagine making a nail appointment for a manicure? “Hello, Bambi?  This is Lee, I need to make an appointment to get my nails painted.  Can you find a free couple of days to give me a manicure and order the 302 bottles of polish you’ll need to paint my nails?”

Not to mention trying to figure out how she washes her hair, puts on makeup, and a whole bunch of other awkward thoughts.

I wonder what happens when she walks in a windstorm and her fingernails rattle?  Gloves aren’t an option unless she maybe gets the finger cut out gloves and spends a couple of hours threading her nails through them. 

It’s just too weird!

By the way she is a grandmother.

Lee redmond1

Lee Redmond

It came to an end

It came to an end

  • Lee Redmond, a 68-year-old woman's record-breaking 28-foot long fingernails were cut short - tragically in a car crash!

  • The Salt Lake City, Utah native said it was the most dramatic event of her life when the car accident robbed her of her 28-foot-4-inch fingernails.

  • Redmond, who parted ways with her claws in February 2009, says life is much easier without them and her hands seem to fly with the weight of the nails gone.

  • Despite pleas from her great-grandchildren to 'glue them back on', she won't grow her nails again, saying it took 30 years to get them to that length and she probably won't live for another 30.

  • Redmond hadn't cut her nails since 1979 and entered the Guinness World Records book in 2002 for longest fingernails on a woman.

Click Here for Movie



  • It takes about 28 days for you to shed your skin (so to speak). From the time the new cells form until the time when they are shed.

Skin diseases and conditions

Skin Diseases and Conditions



Mrsa a staph

MRSA a staph

  • These infections in the community are usually manifested as minor skin infections such as pimples and boils. Transmission of MRSA has been reported most frequently in certain populations, e.g., hospital workers, children, and sports participants to name a few.

Skin cancer

Skin Cancer

  • It is projected that this most deadly of all skin cancers will develop on the skin of 44,000 Americans annually. Every year, an estimated 7,300 Americans will die from melanoma. Affects the various skin cells.

Some pictures of melanoma and other skin cancers

Some pictures of Melanoma and other skin cancers

Asymmetrical skin growths

Asymmetrical skin growths

  • in which one part is different from the other, may indicate melanoma. Here, the left side of the mole is dark and a little raised, whereas the right side is lighter in color and flat

Check for asymmetry: Draw an imaginary line down the middle and compare halves

Irregular borders

Irregular Borders

  • Melanomas tend to have borders that are vaguely defined. Growths with irregular, notched or scalloped borders need to be examined by a doctor.

Note changes in color

Note changes in color

  • Multiple colors or uneven distribution of color may indicate cancer. Generally, growths that are a uniform color are noncancerous.



  • A skin growth's large size may be an indication of cancer. A rapid increase in size over weeks or months may indicate cancer. Have your doctor check out any growth larger than the diameter of a pencil eraser (6 millimeters).



  • The mole shown here does not fit into any of the other criteria for removal — size, shape, color or pattern. But watch moles like these closely for changes, due to the small amount of color irregularity.

  • Look for changes over time, such as a mole that grows in size or that changes color or shape. Moles may also evolve to develop new signs and symptoms, such as new itchiness or bleeding.



  • Moles can appear anywhere on the skin, alone or in groups.

  • They are usually brown in color and can be various sizes and shapes.

  • The brown color is caused by melanocytes, special cells that produce the pigment melanin.



  • Moles probably are determined before a person is born.

  • Most appear during the first 20 years of a person's life, although some may not appear until later in life.

  • Sun exposure increases the number of moles.



  • Your skin is the thinnest on the eyelid.

Did you know2

Did You Know ??

  • Moles and freckles are benign tumors.

Skin injury and healing

Skin Injury and Healing

  • Burns can result from exposure to the sun or contact with chemicals or hot objects.

  • Burns are rated according to their severity.

Skin injury and healing1

Skin Injury and Healing

  • First-degree burns, such as a mild sunburn, involve the death of epidermal cells and are characterized by redness and mild pain.

  • First-degree burns usually heal in about one week without leaving a scar.



Skin injury and healing2

Skin Injury and Healing

  • Second-degree burns involve damage to skin cells of both the epidermis and the dermis and can result in blistering and scarring.

  • Third-degree burns are the most severe, which destroy both the epidermis and the dermis and can result in blistering and scarring.

  • With this type of burn, skin function is lost, and skin grafts may be required to replace lost skin.

Human skin

Human Skin

Skin injury and healing3

Skin Injury and Healing

  • Age related changes -As people get older, their skin changes.

  • It becomes drier as glands decrease their production of lubricating skin oils—a mixture of fats, cholesterol, proteins, and inorganic salts.

Age related changes

Age related changes

  • Wrinkles may appear as the elasticity of the skin decreases.

Skin tags appear most often in women and elderly people.

Skin diseases

Skin Diseases

  • Leprosy

Skin diseases1

Skin Diseases

  • Eczema

Skin diseases2

Skin Diseases

  • Poison Ivy



  • Learn to recognize these plants: (left to right) poison ivy, oak, and sumac

Skin diseases3

Skin Diseases

  • Shingles - Chickenpox virus

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