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In The Name Of God. An Overview of Water Resources Management in IR of Iran. Water & Wastewater Micro Planning Bureau Ministry of Energy 2012. Contents. 1. Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues 2. Development Procedure of Water Sector

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An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

In The Name Of God

An Overview of Water Resources Management in IR of Iran

Water & Wastewater Micro Planning Bureau

Ministry of Energy

2012


Contents

Contents

1. Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues

2. Development Procedure of Water Sector

3. Major Challenges and Trends in Iranian Water Resources Management

4. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

5. Conclusion


1 water resources potentials and related issues

1. Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

1.2: World Climate Classification


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

1.3: Population Growth and Water Scarcity

Based on these unpleasant facts, improving wise water policy strategies that would promote water use efficiency has been put in the priorities of Iran water resources management plans.


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

1.4: The Available Fresh Water Per Capita

45 years ago: The available fresh water per capita in Iran was ½ of the world average in the early years of 1960

15 years ago: The available fresh water per capital in Iran was 1/3 (one third) of the worlds related average.

In next 20 years: The per capita of available fresh water in Iran would be ¼ (one fourth) of the world’s related average.

Less than 10 years in the future Some parts of the country would be encountered with somehow water crisis conditions.


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

1.5: Iran Location

I.R. of IRAN

  • Area: 1.648 million km2

  • Population: 75 million

  • No of provinces: 30

  • Average Rainfall: 250 mm

  • Neighboring Countries:

  • Afghanistan, Pakistan, IraqTurkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia,

  • Turkey Saudi Arabia

  • Oman

  • Kuwait

  • Qatar

  • Bahrain

  • U.A.Emirates


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

1.6 Population Growth and Water Scarcity

The country's population has increased about 8 times during the last 80 years and it has got from 10 millions in 1920 to more than 75 millions in 2012. At present Iran is the 17th most populated countries in the world and based on the data presented in UN it will be classified as one of the 10 most populated regions in the world by the end of 2050. Therefore the need for water has been increased but still the quantity of water is not adequate.


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

1.7: Precipitation

The average annual precipitation is estimated to be 250 mmand therange varies from 50 mm in some parts of the central water basin to more than 1600 mm in some coastal areas near the Caspian Sea. Meanwhile with respect to the average annual precipitation in the world with average rainfall of more than 830 mm, Iran is classified among the semi-arid and arid countries. Still the main source of water resources throughout the country is annual precipitation.


Precipitation distribution

Precipitation Distribution


Six major water basins in iran

Major catchments

Area (*103 Km2)

Caspian Sea

177

Persian Gulf

430

Oromieh Lake

53

Central

831

Hamoon

106

Sarakhs

44

Total

1641

1.8 Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues

Six major water basins in IRAN

Major catchment Basins location


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

1.9 Water Resources Potentials and Related Issues

Rate of precipitation in six major water basins


Rivers water resources

Rivers & Water Resources

8


Renewable fresh water

Renewable Fresh Water


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Return Water from Consumption

29

1.11 Water Resources Potentials

According to studies carried out for formulation of the Iran Water Comprehensive Plan, the main characteristics of annual precipitation and its conversion to water resources are shown:

Annual Water Resources in Billion Cubic Meters (BCM)

Total 159


Fresh water consumption

Fresh Water Consumption

At present Iran is using 70% of the total renewable freshwater while due to the international norms the upper limit should be 40% of renewable freshwater; it means that the remain unexploited renewable fresh water is only 30 % total fresh water resources including environmental basic needs.


Water consumption at a glance

Water Consumption at a Glance


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

92.4% of accessible fresh water is used in agricultural activities which is quite far more than the world average of 69-70% use in agricultural activities. Domestic sector uses 6.5 % and industries use only 1.5 % of accessible freshwater.


2 development procedure of water sector

2. Development Procedure of Water Sector


Elements of water management

Elements of Water Management

  • Policy Makers

    • Parliament

    • Supreme Water Council, presided by the President of Iran

  • Governance (Ministry of Energy)

    • Deputy Minister for Water Affairs

      • Iran Water Resources Management Company

      • Water & Wastewater Engineering Company

  • Other Stakeholders

    • Management & Planning Organization

    • Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture

    • Ministry of Industry

    • Mines, Ministry of Urban Development

    • Environmental Protection Organization, …

  • Private Sector

    • 126 Consultant firms

    • 220 Contractors220 Contractors

    • Stackholders & non govermental organisations


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

What happened in the past?

  • First Book: “the Excavation of Hidden Water” Karadji – about 1000 years ago

  • 50 dams more than 200 yrs old

  • Quanat: the famous underground water system which backs to at least

    2500 years ago


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Infrastructure

  • Storage and Diversion Dams

  • Irrigation and Drainage Networks

  • Urban Water, Wastewater and Sanitation

  • Hydropower


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Hydraulic Structures and Dams

One of the items in Iran's water resources development plan is the control and regulation of water resources through dams. In accordance to the ICOLD identification of large dams, the country has over 220 large dams in operation and also more than 85 dams under construction which totally control over 46.4 billion cubic meters of country's water resources.

ICOLD: International Committee of Large Dams


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

DAMS

Under Operation


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

DAMS

Under Construction


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Development Procedure of Urban Water & Wastewater Sector

In order to ensure sustainable development and social welfare in Iran it is essential to construct infrastructures, particularly those related to water supply and sanitation. Establishment of suitable water and wastewater installations throughout cities and villages, plays a fundamental role in national improvement of hygienic conditions as well as promotion of public welfare. At present more than 99.4 percent of Iran’s population is covered by urban water and wastewater services.


Irrigation drainage networks

Irrigation & Drainage Networks

Under Operation

  • Number of IDN: 50

  • Area under command (million ha):1.9

    UnderConstruction

  • Number of IDN:82

  • Area under command (million ha):1.4


Availability of potable water for urban and rural population

Title

1979

2012

Urban Population Access to Potable Water (Percent)

62.3

99.4

Rural Population Access to Potable Water (Percent)

Less than 24

86.5

Availability of Potable Water for Urban and Rural Population


Hydropower

Hydropower

  • Installed Capacity7400 MW

  • Under Construction 4500 MW

  • Potential Capacity 26000 MW


Energy production rates in 2020

Iran

Energy Production Rates in 2020

World


Growth trend of hydropower installing capacity in iran

growth trend of hydropower installing capacity in Iran


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

3. Major Challenges and Trends

in Iranian Water Resources Management


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

3. Major Challenges and Trends in Iranian Water Resources Management

  • Unbalance sequence between demand and supply of water resources

  • Excessive withdrawal of groundwater resources

  • Demand Management in accordance to priorities set in the National Water Plan

  • Assessment of total value and cost of water relevant to each basin

  • Pollution of water resources and its economic and environmental consequences

  • Efficiency in water irrigation systems

  • Risk Management of water related natural disaster ( i.e. drought and flood )

  • Implementation of National Integrated Water Resources Management

  • Efficient and equitable water price for various uses

  • Land use planning

  • Unaccounted for water (UFW)


Water consumption vision

Water Demand

Water Consumption Vision

90 million

Population

Consumption increase due to urbanization and improved welfare

We need 30 bcm more water


How we can prepare more fresh water in future

How We Can Prepare More Fresh Water in Future

  • Improvement Water efficiency

  • Increasing the Storage Capacity

  • Modern Water Harvest Methods

  • Water & Wastewater Recycle


Droughts global mapping

DROUGHTS: GLOBAL MAPPING

Drought Prone Regions:

Probability that annual rainfall falls below 75% of the long-term mean rainfall


Drought work in iran meteorological analyses

DROUGHT WORK IN IRAN: meteorological analyses

Mapping Drought Characteristics


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

4. Recent Approaches in Water Policies


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

4. Recent Approaches and Water Policies

In order to solve the challenges Iran has developed some important and strategic plans which are as follow:

  • Promotion of Private Investment in Water Projects

  • Long-Term Development Strategies for Iran's Water Resources

  • Creation of Water Related Councils

  • Strengthening Scientific and Practical Skills and Potentials

  • Promotion of sustainable development and environmental views in water resources management

  • The 5th Development Program of the Country-Water Sector


Conclusion

Conclusion

In order to reduce the disadvantages we need to follow our solution methods based on national integrated water resources management within the body of our government as a whole and through public participation, support of NGOs and international organizations.


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Goals

A comprehensive study( Master plan )of how to adopt and accommodate the “Socio-economic development plans” contents particularly water related sectors with arid and semi arid climate; Through country’s 30 river basins integrated water resources management ( IWRM )

Establishment of a long term balanced between water supply and water demand, and among the use sectors and stakeholders in each river basin.

Hope to specify the real obstacles and problems and find the way of solutions.


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Dimensions & Expected Outcomes

Institutional

&

Structural

Demand Management

Supply

Management


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Sustainable Exploitation From the Natural Resources and Environment in the basis of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

  • Coexisting between human and environment in harmony for a better welfare

  • -

Sustainable Development of Hydro Projects

IWRM

Environmental Considerations of projects


How to reach

  • The long-term development strategies are on the basis of IWRM deserve to respond:

  • Economic efficiency

  • Water for food and social security

  • Water for environment and sustainable development

  • In addition to executing development plans & supplying water through dams construction, considerations of IWRM, EIA and sustainable development should be taken into attention.

How to Reach?


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Long-term Development Strategy

Some important points :

Macro management

  • Water management must be based on:

  • supply and demand management

  • integrated consideration of water cycle

  • principles of sustainable development

  • land use planning in national and trans-boundary basins

  • to realize water resources integrated management, various economic, social, infrastructural and service sectors must be coordinated with water sector.


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Long-term Development Strategy

Some important points :

Water Resources Management

The utilization of Iran’s water resources in each basin must be planned in such a way that the volume of the utilized underground water does not exceed the present utilized volume considering their tolerance.

Therefore, structural and nonstructural actions must be taken to meet people’s new demands to the extent that the utilized share of surface water resources increases from the present 46 percent to 55 percent within the coming 20 years and meets the need ofnatural environment.


Demand management

Long-term Development Strategy

Some important points :

Demand Management

The water consumption pattern in Iran must be performed in such a way that the agricultural water consumption share will be reduced from the present 92 percent to 87 percent by the coming 20 years while doubling water consumption efficiency of 1 m3 by enhancing irrigation efficiency and allocating to more economically valuable crops.

New water allocation priorities will be drinking and environment, industry and service, and gardening and agriculture respectively.


Economic value

Long-term Development Strategy

Some important points :

Economic Value

Iran water management must consider the economic value of water, including its intrinsic value in every basin and the value of investment in supplying, transferring, distributing and recycling water to be consumed in various sectors.


Quality control

Long-term Development Strategy

Some important points :

Quality control

The management of the activities of various water consumers must be applied in such a way to control water pollution resulting from the consumers activities and develop water quality gradually. Water consumers have to consider the national standards of water resources quality conservation and sewage disposal system to achieve this goal.


An overview of water resources management in ir of iran

Thank you for your attention


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