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HISTOLOGY OF KIDNEY. Dr Iram Tassaduq. GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF RENAL STRUCTURE. Capsule Cortex • C ortical labryinth • M edullary rays Medulla • renal pyramids • cortical/renal columns Renal pelvis Major and minor calyxes. LOBES AND LOBULES.

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Histology of kidney

HISTOLOGY OF KIDNEY

Dr Iram Tassaduq


General organization of renal structure
GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF RENAL STRUCTURE

Capsule

Cortex

• Cortical labryinth

• Medullary rays

Medulla

• renal pyramids

• cortical/renal columns

Renal pelvis

Major and minor calyxes


Lobes and lobules
LOBES AND LOBULES

Each kidney lobe consists of a medullary pyramid and its associated cortex.

A renal lobule is defined as a portion of the kidney containing thoseNephrons that are served by a common collecting duct.  



Renal capsule
RENAL CAPSULE

  • Comprised of 2 layers

  • Outer mainly consist of collagen fibers

  • Inner mainly has

    myofibroblast


Nephron

Collecting tubule




Cortical labyrinth
CORTICAL LABYRINTH

Renal corpuscle

Convoluted tubule




Mesengial cells
MESENGIAL CELLS

  • found within the glomerulus. These cells secrete a matrix of basement membrane-like material to support the structure of the glomerulus.


Proximal convulated tubule
PROXIMAL CONVULATED TUBULE

  • Longest and tortous part of nephron

  • Commences at urinary pole

  • Occupies major part of cortex

  • Lined by low columnar epithelium

  • Show brush border

  • Absorb sodium


Loop of henle
LOOP OF HENLE

The thin segment of Henle's loop leads into the straight part of the distal tubule, which is formed by low cuboidal cells without a brush border. A few short microvilli are present

Epithelial cells in the ascending parts of the intermediate and straight distal tubules cells transport chloride (active) and sodium ions (passive) out of the tubular lumen into the surrounding peritubular space.

The epithelium can not be penetrated by water. Consequently, the transport of ions over the epithelium sets up a gradient in osmotic pressure, which serves as driving force in the further concentration of the urine.


Distal convulated tubule
DISTAL CONVULATED TUBULE

  • Slightly tortous

  • Lined by simple cuboidal epithelium

  • Absorption of sodium and chloride


Collecting duct
COLLECTING DUCT

Excretory ducts

Present in medullary ray

Lined by simple cuboidal epithelium

Transport urine from nephron to renal pelvis


  • Formed of straight tubules and collecting duct



Macula densa
MACULA DENSA

  • Specialized region of DCT

  • Cells are tall columnar

  • Closely packed nuclei

  • Thin and discontinuous basal lamina

  • Release renin


Juxta glomerular cells
JUXTA GLOMERULAR CELLS

  • Present adjacent to macula densa

  • Epithelioid cells in tunica media

  • Large in size

  • Internal elastic lamina is absent


Extra glomerular mesengial cells
EXTRA GLOMERULAR MESENGIAL CELLS

  • Form a cushion of cells between afferent and efferent arteriole

  • Structurally resemble intraglomerular cells

  • Functional significance not clear


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