Enhancing the quality of higher education governance and funding challenges
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Enhancing the quality of higher education: governance and funding challenges. Stéphan VINCENT-LANCRIN OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI). Outline. Tertiary education and economic performance Enhancing the quality of: Teaching Research

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Enhancing the quality of higher education: governance and funding challenges

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Enhancing the quality of higher education: governance and funding challenges

Stéphan VINCENT-LANCRIN

OECD

Centre for EducationalResearch and Innovation (CERI)


Outline

  • Tertiary education and economic performance

  • Enhancing the quality of:

    • Teaching

    • Research

  • Funding and governance implications


Tertiary education and economic performance

  • Labour productivity

  • Innovation in the economy

    • Researchers and R&D

    • Absorption of innovation

  • Lifelong learning

    • Absorption of innovation


New demands of the modern economy

  • Technology-bias towards highly skilled people

  • Increasing need for non-routine cognitive skills in advanced economies

    • Interactive

    • analytical


How the demand for skills has changedEconomy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)

Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution

Source: Levy and Murnane


Missions of higher education

  • Teaching

  • Research

  • Community services

  • Production of new knowledge

  • Transmission of knowledge

  • Transmission of critical thinking

  • Maintaining of old knowledge (culture, scholarship, libraries)


Education / Teaching


EU countries tend to invest less than OECD average as a % of GDP (2004)


The US and Korea invest about twice as much in education per se as most EU countries (% GDP) (2004)


Annual expenditures per student on tertiary education (Constant US dollars, PPPs)


Change in expenditures on tertiary education (1995-2003)


Household contribution to tertiary education expenditures (2003)


The expansion in numbers may continue and put pressure on quality: projected tertiary enrolments in 2025 under recent trends (2005=100)

Source: OECD, Higher Education 2030, Vol. 1 Demography (forthcoming)


How much additional public budget (% of GDP) will be needed to keep current “quality” conditions in 2025(scenario 2, no productivity enhancement, current cost-sharing)


Evolution of student/staff ratio according to recent trends in access (if staff stay at 2004 level)


Changes in the number of 25-44 tertiary graduates relative to the US


Tertiary Educational Attainment of the 25-44 population2005 and 2025 (trends of past 10 years)


Quality of education

  • Teaching is the first and main function of Higher Education

  • BUT little incentives for teaching: bad teaching is often unnoticed, and good teaching, unrewarded


Quality of education

  • Change the incentive structures

    • Reward and value good teaching as much as research

    • Assessment of tertiaryeducationlearningoutcomes

  • Differentiatedtertiaryeducationsector

    • Avoidacademic drift

  • Develop soft skillsduring first years of university

    • Impliesbetterstudent/staff ratio for the undergraduateyears (funding)

    • New pedagogies and productivityenhancements (e-learning?)

  • Internationalisation

    • Encourage outward and inwardstudentmobility


Quality of education

  • Autonomy and accountability

    • Lift administrative burdens of public accountancy

    • Autonomy to hire and to someextent set wages

  • Quality assurance mechanisms

    • Risks: costly and burdensome

    • Objective: shoulddevelopquality culture

  • Performance-basedfunding

    • Important to have agreedtargets

    • Mix of input- and output-basedfundingworkswell

  • Importance of lifelonglearning

    • Not necessarily in tertiaryeducation

    • Examples: communitycolleges in the US


Research


Share of students enrolled in advanced research programmes (ISCED 6) (2005)


Research


« Public » research expenditures as a percentage of GDP (2005)

Lisbon agenda target


Number of (ISI) articles per million inhabitant


Relative public research productivity

Scientific articles per million inhabitants

Public research as % of GDP


Relative public research productivity

Scientific articles per million inhabitants

Public research as % of GDP


Quality of research

  • Concentrate the funding?

    • A question of balance: project-basedfunding and block grants

    • Avoid short termfunding and « research to the assessment »

  • Relocate the excellent research?

    • World class universities, mergers, centres of excellence

    • To bebalancedagainstregional innovation

  • Avoidacademic drift


Conclusions


Conclusion

  • Researchis important, but educationeven more so

  • Fundingis important: level and type of allocation

    • More funding for tertiaryeducation(new cost sharing?)

    • Balance in fundingmechanisms, based on inputs and outputs

    • In research, beready to « lose » money

    • Competingwith Harvard willbedifficult…

  • But qualityis not just about money

    • Education: innovation in teaching, focus on graduation and not just entry

    • Research: beready to lose and waste money by fundingcontroversialresearch and researchers

  • Internationalisation contributes to qualityenhancement


[email protected]

Thank You

www.oecd.org/edu/universityfutures


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