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Biopsychology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Biopsychology. Or Everything you’ve ever wanted to know about sexual selection but were afraid to ask. Interactions. Definitions of interactions: The whole is greater than the sum of its parts The relationship between the variables is multiplicative instead of additive

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Biopsychology

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Biopsychology

Or

Everything you’ve ever wanted to know about sexual selection but were afraid to ask


Interactions

Definitions of interactions:

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

The relationship between the variables is multiplicative instead of additive

The effectiveness of one intervention is contingent upon another intervention


Interactions

No

Yes

0

3

No

5

-20

Yes


Interactions

Valium

No

Yes

0

10

No

Alcohol

5

100

Yes


Interactions

Gender

Male

Female

Scorpion King

10

-10

Movie

Ya Ya Sisterhood

-10

10


Evolution

Survival of the fittest


Evolution

Finding/Harvesting Resources

Avoiding Predators

Avoiding Illness

REPRODUCING!!!


Evolution

If other organs such as the stomach and spleen were evolutionarily advantageous, why not the brain?


Evolution

Mate Selection

Men – Looking to “spread their seed”

Women – Looking for a mate who will care for children


Evolution

Post Hoc Theorizing Game

He who hesitates is lost

Look before you leap

Birds of a feather flock together

Opposites attract


Behavioral Genetics

Nature

Vs.

Nurture


Behavioral Genetics

Identical Twins

100%

Fraternal Twins

50%


Behavioral Genetics

Shared Genetics

Genetic Family

Adopted Child

Adopted Family

Shared environment


Behavioral Genetics


Behavioral Genetics

Heritability Estimates – The proportion of the total variance in a trait that is attributable to genetic variation within a group.


Behavioral Genetics

Heritability Estimates

Intelligence: .70

Neuroticism: .55

Depression: .44

Doing Crosswords: .55

Liking Sweets: .65

Playing Chess: .62

Assertiveness: .72

Smoking: .48

Ambition: .54

Humility: .42

Leadership: .59

Time Reading: .43


Behavioral Genetics

However, it is generally accepted that behavior is determined by a nature x nurture interaction

e.g. A person with a genetic predisposition towards alcoholism won’t become an alcoholic if he never takes a sip of liquor


Psychophysiology

Heart Rate

Blood Pressure

Skin Conductance

Electromyography

Cortisol Levels

Breathing Rates

Tone of Voice


Psychophysiology

Polygraphs

Liars feel:

1) Nervous that they’ll get caught

2) Guilty about lying


Psychophysiology

Polygraphs

  • How it works:

  • Tell the truth, get a baseline measure

  • Tell a lie, get a measure of deception

  • Compute the difference between the two

  • Ask real questions, if subject looks more like a liar than a truth-teller, then the subject is lying


Psychophysiology

Polygraphs

  • Problems:

  • Questions may be anxiety provoking

  • Knowing that if the machine says that you’re lying you’ll go to jail causes anxiety

  • Not all liars exhibit psychophysiological responses.


Psychophysiology

How to trick a polygraph:

Difference

Arousal

Time


Psychophysiology

How to trick a polygraph:

Arousal

Difference

Time


Psychophysiology

How polygraphs REALLY work

Criminals get scared by the prospect of being detected, and they confess their crimes!


Psychophysiology

Other areas that psychophys can study

Emotion

Attitudes

Unconscious Processes


Circadian Rythyms

The Sleep-Wake Cycle

Free of all time cues, the human day averages about 25 hours

Body temperature, and hormone levels follow this cycle

Regulated by the hormone melatonin

Since we have a ~24 hour cycle, the longer we stay awake, the less we sleep!


Circadian Rythyms

Average Hours Sleeping per Day

Giant Sloth: 20 hours

Brown Bat: 19 hours

House Cat: 14 hours

Jaguar: 10 hours

Human: 8 hours

Elephant: 3 hours

Horse: 2 hours


Sleep Deprivation

The Randy Gardner Case

Mood Disturbance common

Complex Cognitive tasks unaffected

Dull cognitive tasks are difficult

Longitudinal partial sleep deprivation causes more difficulty than short term total sleep deprivation

Microsleeps


Sleep Deprivation

Experimental rats die after several days.

Yoked Rats not affected.


Sleep Deprivation

Increasing sleep efficiency after deprivation

Da Vinci’s sleep strategy

15 minute nap every 4 hours

Total of 1.5 hours of sleep per day

Replicated by Stampi, (1992) in a lab.

Takes 2 weeks to adjust, during which time...


Conclusions

  • Evolution may have impacted our behavior, but be wary of post-hoc analysis

  • The nature vs. nurture debate should be viewed as an interaction

  • Psychophysiology can tell us a great deal, but polygraphs are useless.

  • Sleep is good.


Assignment #1

Example for class:

Spanking Children


Happy 4th of July!!


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