H y l o zoism or h y l o nekrism? Is it possible to reduce physics to biology ?. Peter Zamarovský FEL, ČVUT Technická 2 166 27 Praha 6 [email protected] "Any statement can be maintained as true, no matter what happens, if enough drastic adjustments elsewhere in the system are done.“
no matter what happens,
if enough drastic adjustments elsewhere in the system are done.“
Quine Willard van Orman
Reductionism: ontological x epistemological
Ontological: … it is nothing but …
Epistemological: …it appears as it was …, we can understand as ….
Milesians philosophers, “physicists” reducing view on material reality, everything (material) is various forms of …. (water, apeiron, air…)
“Only reducing approach is rational.”
Understanding is not unambiguous representation of subject to mind, but reduction. Thanks to this, the following statement is not valid:
If the human brain was so simple that we could understand it, then we ourselves were so primitive, that we could not understand it. (Emerson Pugh)
unknown → known
incomprehensible → comprehensible
Critique: reductionism is oversimplification – HOLISM (However: limitation of holism)
Conclusion: Needed conscious reductionism, plurality of reductionisms
Reduction of biology to physics getting knowledge in general)
Atomism – from Leucippus and Democritus to CERN
Reduction in physics – atomism – composition of matter, (Aristotelian causa materialis + causa formalis)
“All there is are atoms and voids.” (Leucippus, Democritus)
Atoms behave according to laws of physics
Reduction in biology – (Aristotelian “causa finalis”)
Newtonian (later quantum) physics (mechanics): operating case → behaviour of the system
Biomorphism - “reduction of physics to biology” – utilization of teleology (finality, causa finalis) in physics
Principle of the last action, Fermat principle – Euler (existence of God), anthropic principle
Reduction of nonliving to living and vice versa getting knowledge in general)
Hylozoism (and animism) – evolutionary primary approach to world
division living x not living things is only apparent, artificial
Never ... I learned to live in the prosaic world of inanimate objects. In theory ... I know that the world can be understood as a cluster of particles in a mechanical movement, that goose in livestock production can be understood as a biological mechanism and mug like thing. I can get to it when needed, but I find it artificial, unreal. I do not experience the world like that. My world is a community of fellow human beings, human and nonhuman ...
Pythagoreans getting knowledge in general) (Philolaus) – animated planets (Bruno),
Anaxagoras „everything comes from seeds“
Plato – Timaios „world is a living creature, (animal, organism)“, (Human society is also organism.)
Aristotle (everything is driven by aim, purpose - teleology)…
Fritjof Capra – biology is primary science
James Lovelock – Gaia hypothesis (1970th), („Gaia, the living planet“, Earth alive) (geophysiology) proposes that all organisms and their inorganic surroundings on Earth are closely integrated to form a single and self-regulating complex system, maintaining the conditions for life on the planet.“Super organism“ (something like anthil)
Metabolisms (income of nutriment, and outcome) (nutriment – Sun heat?)
Feedbacks - homeostasis (homeodynamics): regulation of the salinity in the oceans, regulation of oxygen in the atmosphere, global surface temperature
Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμοιος, hómoios, "similar", and στάσις, stásis, "standing still") is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, constant condition of properties such as temperature or pH. (It was defined by Claude Bernard in 19th cent.)
Daisyworld simulations getting knowledge in general)
James Lovelock and Andrew Watson developed the mathematical model Daisyworld, that shows how temperature regulation can arise from organisms interacting with their environment. The purpose of the model is to demonstrate that feedback mechanisms can evolve from the actions or activities of self-interested organisms, rather than through classic group selection mechanisms.
Daisyworld examines the energy budget of a planet populated by two different types of plants, black daisies and white daisies. The colour of the daisies influences the albedo (reflexivity of light-heat) of the planet such that black daisies absorb light and warm the planet, while white daisies reflect light and cool the planet. Competition between the daisies (based on temperature-effects on growth rates) leads to a balance of populations that tends to favour a planetary temperature close to the optimum for daisy growth.
In the visible universe approximately 1011 galaxies with 1011 stars, i.e., 1022 stars and 1018 black holes
According to general theory of relativity time coordinates start in the Big bang and end in black holes (both these are singularities)
Singularity in black hole: thanks to quantum phenomena – there is no end of time but it continues in new area (dimension) of space-time that is interconnected with our through starting moment of black hole – local Big Bang.
From back holes new universes are born. They can have various fundamental parameters (Smolin considered 20).
20-ti dimensional parametric space of universes, Universes are reproduced by black holes, universes with greater amount of black holes are more fertile.
Fundamental parameters of children-universes are close to fundamental parameters of parents universes.
Landscape (parametric space) of universes getting knowledge in general)
Horizontal plane - the space of basic physical parameters (20, shown only two)
Vertical axis - the frequency of universes with relevant parameters
Cats - individual universes
(Analogy with the genetic space.)
Verifiability theory (?) - by variation of basic parameters - we have to be near or at the peak, i.e., at the peak of numbers of black holes.
+ provides new heuristic principles suitable for understanding of complex systems
- It provides no deterministic theories