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1950's. 1950’s. Main Essential Question:. How did political and social developments between 1945 and 1970 affect American culture and norms?. SSUSH 20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States.

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1950’s

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1950 s

1950's

1950’s


Main essential question

Main Essential Question:

  • How did political and social developments between 1945 and 1970 affect American culture and norms?


1950 s

SSUSH 20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States.

c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis.

d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive and growing opposition to the war.


Ssush21 the student will explain economic growth and its impact on the united states 1945 1970

SSUSH21 The student will explain economic growth and its impact on the United States, 1945-1970.

  • a. Describe the baby boom and the impact as shown by Levittown and the Interstate Highway Act.

  • b. Describe the impact television has had on American culture, including the presidential

  • debates (Kennedy/Nixon, 1960) and news coverage of the Civil Rights movement.

  • c. Analyze the impact of technology on American life, including the development of the personal computer and the cellular telephone.

  • d. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and President Eisenhower’s actions.


Ssush22 the student will identify dimensions of the civil rights movement 1945 1970

SSUSH22 The student will identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1970.

  • a. Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the U.S. military and the federal government.

  • b. Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball.

  • c. Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision.

  • d. Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and his I have a dream speech.

  • e. Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.


Georgia performance standards

Georgia Performance Standards

SSUSH23 The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and 1970.

a. Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision.

b. Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation.

c. Explain Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare.

d. Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968; include the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events surrounding the Democratic National Convention.

SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s.

a. Compare and contrast the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides, and changing composition.

b. Describe the National Organization of Women and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement.

c. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.

d. Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers’ movement.

e. Explain Rachel Carson and Silent Spring, Earth Day, the creation of the EPA, and the modern environmentalist movement.

f. Describe the rise of the conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon (1968).


1950 s

SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.

a. Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, his resignation due to the Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford.


Essential questions

Essential Questions:

  • What was the American response to the Cuban Missile Crisis?

  • What was the impact of the Vietnam War politically and socially?

  • How did economic growth after 1950 impact the American way of life?

  • What is the significance of Martin Luther King?

  • What changes in American society were caused by the Civil Right’s movement?

  • How did American life change in the 1960’s?

  • How did the Warren Court change America?


America after wwii

America after WWII


1950 s

  • Baby Boom- starting in 1946 people have lots of babies-common after a war

  • Where will they all live?

  • Places like Levittown- new way of living in Long Island NY. Not in the main city of New York.

  • Many 2-3 bedroom homes in close proximity on a ½ to 1 acre.

  • Called the suburbs and they are here to stay!


1950 s

People making money , buying cars, living further away from workAnswer? Inter-state Highway Act-construction of 40,000 miles of interstate highways over a 10-year period; it was the largest public works project in American history to that point. America is growing and on the move!


Civil rights

Civil Rights


The almost first civil rights march in 1941

The “Almost” First Civil Rights March in 1941

  • A. Philip Randolph (international president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, president of the Negro American Labor Council , and vice president of the AFL-CIO), had planned a march on Washington in 1941 to protest discrimination

  • The threat of the 1941 march convinced President Roosevelt to establish the Committee on Fair Employment Practice and bar discriminatory hiring in the defense industry

  • Therefore it never happened


1950 s

  • Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era

  • While not the first African American professional baseball player in United States history, his Major League debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers ended approximately eighty years of baseball segregation, also known as the baseball color line or color barrier.

1947


1950 s

1948

  • President Truman orders integrationof the military

  • Among the order's effects was the elimination of Montford Point as a segregated Marine boot camp (the camp became Camp Lejeune).

  • The last of the all-black units in the United States military was abolished in September 1954.


End of legal segregation

End of legal segregation

  • Brown v. Board of Education-1954

    • Supreme Court rules that “separate but equal” was unconstitutional.

    • Schools required to integrate blacks.

  • Chief Justice Earl Warren writes majority opinion.


1950 s

1955

  • Rosa Parks

    • Black woman refuses to sit in the back of the public bus.

    • 1956 the Montgomery buses desegregate.

  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    • Voting rights for blacks secured.


1950 s

1960- The sit-in protest movement begins in February at a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C. and spreads across the nation.


Civil rights movement

Civil Rights Movement

  • Blacks demand the integration of all public facilities.

  • February, 1960- Four black students refuse to leave a “whites only” lunch counter in Greensboro, NC.

  • Return each day for a “sit-in” until integrated.

  • Fully integrated in July, 1960.


1950 s

1961- Freedom rides begin from Washington, D.C: Groups of black and white people ride buses through the South to challenge segregation.


1950 s

1962- Two killed, many injured in riots as James Meredith is enrolled as the first black at the University of Mississippi.


1950 s

1963- Police arrest King and other ministers demonstrating in Birmingham, Ala., then turn fire hoses and police dogs on the marchers.Medgar Evers, NAACP leader, is murdered June 12 as he enters his home in Jackson, Miss250,000 people attend the March on Washington, D.C. urging support for pending civil-rights legislation. The event was highlighted by King's "I have a dream" speech. Four girls killed Sept. 15 in bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Ala.


1950 s

  • 1964-Three civil-rights workers are murdered in Mississippi.


Two major civil rights groups

SNCC

SCLC

Two Major Civil Rights Groups


The struggle and the cost

The struggle and the cost


Martin luther king jr

Martin Luther King Jr.

  • Civil Rights leader.

  • Believed in civil disobedience/ “peaceful demonstrations.”

  • 1965- Selma, AL

    • Marches w/ 2000 blacks demanding voting rights.


Mlk s speeches

I have a dream

Letter from a Birmingham jail

MLK’s speeches


Black power

“Black Power”

  • Frustrated blacks organize and riot in the major cities.

  • Demand all-black businesses and all-black communities.

  • Malcolm X

    • Muslim minister.

    • Preaches that blacks and whites could only exist if they were completely separated.

    • Believed to have been assassinated in 1965 by members of the Black Muslim religion


March on washington

March on Washington

  • MLK decides to follow through on Randolph’s proposed 1941 march

  • August, 1963

  • Over 250,000 men, women, and youth gather in Washington, DC.

  • Demand the passage of a Civil Rights Bill.

  • Martin Luther King

    • “I have a dream”


1950 s

1964

The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

1965

Congress passes the Voting Rights Act

Asserting that civil rights laws alone are not enough to remedy discrimination, President Johnson issues Executive Order 11246, which enforces affirmative action for the first time. It requires government contractors to "take affirmative action" toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment.

1967

In Loving v. Virginia, banning interracial

marriage is declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

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Assassination of martin luther king jr

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • April 4, 1968

  • Leads a nonviolent demonstration in Memphis, TN.

  • Killed by an assassin’s bullet outside his hotel room.


Why do so many of the civil rights actions succeed

Why do so many of the civil rights actions succeed?

  • Television!

  • In your living room every night , America can see what is happening in the Civil Rights movement

  • Hard to remain uncaring when you can see blood on the streets, children hurt and women killed

  • Hard to explain that as a good thing to your children


Election of 1956

Election of 1956

  • Republicans

    • Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • Democrats

    • Adlai Stevenson

  • 1955- Eisenhower suffers heart attack, but chooses to run.

  • Eisenhower’s popularity allows him a win by a landslide.


1950 s

1959

  • Minimum wage raised from .75 cents to $1.00.

  • Labor Union AFL-CIO created.

  • Alaska becomes 49th state.

  • Hawaii becomes 50th state.

  • GNP raises from 265 billion to 510 billion.

    • Total money value of all goods and services.


Election of 1960

Election of 1960

  • Democrats

    • John F. Kennedy

  • Republicans

    • Richard Nixon

  • Television debates portray Nixon in a negative manner.

  • Kennedy promises a “New Frontier” to get the American economy moving.

  • Kennedy wins!

    • Age 43- youngest man ever elected President.

    • First Roman Catholic.

  • Television’s importance is growing


The new frontier

“The New Frontier”

  • Increased govt. spending in space and national defense.

  • Minimum wage raised to $1.25/hour.

  • $1.5 billion allotted by Congress to build new schools and hospitals.


The space program the space race

The Space Program (the space race)

  • April, 1961- Soviet Union sends Yuri Gagarin into space.

    • First man in space.

  • February, 1962- John Glenn first American to orbit the Earth.

  • 1964- NASA created.

    • 5 million new jobs created.


Communism in the america s

Communism in the America’s

  • 1959

  • Fidel Castro leads a rebellion in Cuba.

  • Establishes a Communist dictatorship.

  • Allies with the Soviet Union.


The bay of pigs

The Bay of Pigs

  • Kennedy orders CIA to train anti-Castro Cubans to overthrow Castro.

  • April 17, 1961- 1500 rebels are defeated by the Cubans.

    • United States fails to aid them.

  • Invasion over in 72 hours.

  • Kennedy takes responsibility.

    • Criticized as making U.S. look “like fools to our friends, rascals to our enemies, and incompetents to the rest.”


The berlin crisis

The Berlin Crisis

  • Soviet Union sees Kennedy as weak.

    • Demands the West to recognize the sovereignty of Communist E. Germany.

  • Kennedy refuses.

  • August, 1961- Soviets build the Berlin Wall to stop E. Germans from fleeing to W. Germany.


The cuban missile crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis

  • October 14, 1962- American U-2 spy plane photographs missile launch pads in Cuba.

  • October 22, 1962- Kennedy orders naval blockade of Cuba.

  • Soviet Union confronted at U.N.

  • October 24, 1962- Soviet ships stop short of the blockade.

    • “eyeball to eyeball, and the other guy just blinked.”

  • October 28, 1962- Soviets dismantle the missile bases in Cuba.


The assassination of john f kennedy

The Assassination of John F. Kennedy

  • November 22, 1963

  • Kennedy goes to Dallas, TX for a campaign trip.

  • 12:30 pm- Kennedy’s open-air motorcade is fired upon.

    • Kennedy shot in the head- dies instantly.

  • Lee Harvey Oswald accused of the killing.

  • Warren Commission- investigates the assassination and finds no evidence of a conspiracy.


Lyndon johnson

Lyndon Johnson

  • Kennedy’s VP

    • Becomes President after the assassination.

  • Brash, ambitious, and hardworking.

    • Sharp contrast to the wealthy and charismatic Kennedy.

  • Focuses administration

    • Tax Cuts

    • Civil Rights

    • Poverty


The election of 1964

The Election of 1964

  • Democrats

    • Lyndon Johnson

  • Republicans

    • Barry Goldwater

  • Johnson announces new govt. programs to help the poor.

  • Johnson wins in a landslide.


The great society

“The Great Society”

  • Johnson’s federal welfare program.

  • Created:

    • Medicare- health insurance for over 65.

    • Reduction of the federal excise tax on automobiles.

    • $1.5 billion given to poverty.

    • $7.5 billion given to build new homes for the poor.


History of vietnam

History of Vietnam

  • 1950’s- France gives Vietnam its independence.

    • Split into 2 countries

  • North Vietnam

    • Hanoi- capital

    • Communists lead by Ho Chi Minh.

  • South Vietnam

    • Saigon- capital

    • Republic lead by President Diem.

  • North Vietnamese demand reunited country.

    • Viet Cong invade.


American involvement

American Involvement

  • United States vows to stop the spread of Communism.

  • 1957- Eisenhower recognizes as new leader.

  • 1960- Kennedy sends aid to stop Viet Cong.

  • Demand Diem to reform the South.

    • He refuses.

    • No American aid.

  • 1963- Diem assassinated.


Gulf of tonkin resolution

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

  • August, 1964.

  • In Gulf of Tonkin-American ships attacked by N. Vietnam.

    • America secretly aiding S. Vietnam raids.

  • President Johnson orders the bombing of N. Vietnam.

  • Asks Congress for authority take action against N. Vietnam.

    • No official declaration of war.


War in vietnam

War in Vietnam

  • February, 1965- American planes bomb N. Vietnam.

    • This continues until March, 1968.

  • March, 1965- Ground troops sent to S. Vietnam to aid in fighting the Viet Cong.

  • 1966- 500,000 American troops in S. Vietnam.


Tet offensive

Tet Offensive

  • February, 1968.

  • Viet Cong launch surprise attacks on S. Vietnam during Tet.

    • New Year holiday.

  • Americans stop, but many casualties.

  • Shows America that “war” was far from over.

    • Increased anti-war demonstrations.

    • Congress question constitutionality of President’s powers to wage war.


The cultural revolution

The Cultural Revolution

  • Youth revolt against the “establishment.”

    • The Hippies

  • Long hair, blue jeans, and love beads.

  • LSD and marijuana at Haight-Ashbury.

  • Communal Living

    • The Farm

  • It is a time of change and new ideas


Rock music

Rock Music

The Beatles

The Rolling Stones

Jimi Hendrix

Sonny and Cher

The Righteous Brothers

Jerry Garcia

Bob Dylan

Janis Joplin

Joan Baez


Student revolts

Student Revolts

  • 1964- University of California at Berkeley

    • Students demand rights to protest the war.

  • 1965- Teach-ins begin

    • University students take over administrative offices and demand free speech.

  • 1966-67- Students burn draft cards and protest the Vietnam War.

  • 1968- Columbia University seized by students.

    • NY police called in.

    • Over 200 students injured.


Women s movement

Women’s Movement

  • National Organization of Women (NOW) - largest feminist organization

  • Promoted the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution

  • Developed because women felt that they were discriminated against in work, with pay, education , stereotyping,

    equality, and

    culturally

    “No more barefoot and pregnant”


Cesar chavez

Cesar Chavez

  • Prominent Latino leader in the 1960’s

  • Organized the United Farm Workers’ movement- a labor union for migrant and farm workers

  • They wanted better wages, working conditions, and the restriction of deadly pesticides

  • Known for the grape and lettuce boycotts in California


The warren court

The “Warren Court”

  • Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969

  • He affected the legal status of racial segregation, civil rights, separation of church and state, and police arrest procedure (Miranda Rights) in the United States

  • In the years that followed, the Warren Court became recognized as a high point in the use of the judicial power in the effort to effect social progress in the U.S


Environmental ist movement

Environmental-ist Movement

  • Rachel Carson, a marine biologist, wrote Silent Spring in 1962 about the species she saw going extinct and why

  • Silent Spring led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides

  • The grassroots environmental movement it inspired led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency and Earth Day


Election of 1968

Election of 1968

  • Democrats

    • Johnson announces he will not seek a second term.

    • Robert Kennedy

      • Brother and former Attorney General to JFK.

      • Democrat frontrunner

      • Assassinated in California


1968 democratic national convention

1968 Democratic National Convention

  • Hold convention in Chicago.

    • Gene McCarthy- anti-war

    • Hubert Humphrey- pro-war

    • Thousands of peace activists demonstrate in front of the convention hall.

    • Chicago police called out.

    • Violent confrontations witnessed by millions on television


The rise of the conservative movement

The rise of the conservative movement

  • Reaction to the violence and turmoil in America as seen by millions on TV

  • Concerns with hippie movement’s agenda of free love, drugs, and lack of commitment/responsibility

  • Awareness of the eroding of a former way of life

  • Dissatisfaction with the way soldiers and military are being treated

  • “We have gone too far to the left”


1950 s

Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater – credited with sparking the resurgence of the American conservative political movement in the 1960’s

“I have little interest in streamlining government or in making it more efficient, for I mean to reduce its size. I do not undertake to promote welfare, for I propose to extend freedom. My aim is not to pass laws, but to repeal them. It is not to inaugurate new programs, but to cancel old ones that do violence to the Constitution”


Election of 19681

Election of 1968

  • Democrats

    • Hubert Humphrey

  • Republicans

    • Richard Nixon

  • 3 issues

    • Violence in America

    • Vietnam War

    • Civil Rights

  • Nixon promises an “honorable end to the Vietnam War.”

  • Nixon wins by 260,000 popular votes.

    • Wins 302 electoral votes.


1950 s

1969

  • Woodstock

    • August

    • “Three Days of Peace and Music”

    • Acts included The Grateful Dead Jimi Hendrix

      • Janis Joplin

      • Crosby Stills and Nash

    • 400,000 youth indulge in 3 days of sex, drugs, and rock and roll.

      • 60,000 expected to attend.

    • The_Woodstock_Generation.asf


1969 1974

1969-1974

  • 1969- Nixon inaugurated.

  • Calls for the gradual removal of troops from Vietnam.

    • 1975- final troops leave.

    • Improves relations with the Soviet Union

    • Opens up trade with China

    • Watergate scandal

    • 1974-Nixon resigned the presidency in the face of likely impeachment


Gerald ford

Gerald Ford

  • Nixon resigns and his Vice-President becomes President

  • Pardons Nixon

  • Signs Helsinki Accords that further improve relations with Soviet Union


1950 s

1969

  • July 20, 1969

    • Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Ed Aldrin, Jr. land on the moon.

    • “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”


The end by miss d

The end by Miss D

The King Has Left the Building


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