Animal Nutrition

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Animal Science 233 Applied Animal Nutrition. Nutrients/Nutrient Digestion and Absorption. Remember. WaterCarbohydratesLipidsProteinMineralsVitamins. Review of Terminology. DIGESTION: Breakdown of feed nutrients into suitable form for absorptionABSORPTION: Transfer of digested nutrients fro

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Animal Nutrition

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1. Animal Nutrition ????? ???

2. Animal Science 233 Applied Animal Nutrition Nutrients/Nutrient Digestion and Absorption

3. Remember… Water Carbohydrates Lipids Protein Minerals Vitamins

4. Review of Terminology DIGESTION: Breakdown of feed nutrients into suitable form for absorption ABSORPTION: Transfer of digested nutrients from GIT into circulating blood or lymph systems

5. WATER (H20)

6. Water (H2O) Overlook when formulating rations—assumed animals have access to good quality water EXTREMELY IMPORTANT Cheapest & most abundant nutrient May lose 100% of body fat, 50% of body protein and live Lose 10% of body water, dehydration occurs and may result in death

7. Water (H2O) 65-85% of body weight at birth 45-60% of body weight at maturity Many tissues contain 70-90% water

8. Functions of Water Transport of nutrients and excretions Chemical reactions and solvent properties Body temperature regulation Aids in cell shape maintenance Lubricates and cushions joints and organs

9. Sources of Water Drinking water Water in feed Metabolic water Dry feedstuffs (grain/hays) contain between 9-13% free water. Whereas, feedstuffs like corn silage contain 65-75% free water. Metabolic water production: CHO 0.6g H2O/g CHO; proteins = 0.4; fat = 1.0Dry feedstuffs (grain/hays) contain between 9-13% free water. Whereas, feedstuffs like corn silage contain 65-75% free water. Metabolic water production: CHO 0.6g H2O/g CHO; proteins = 0.4; fat = 1.0

10. Sources of Water 1. Drinking Pigs = 1.5-3 gal/hd/day Sheep = 1-3 gal/hd/day Cattle = 10-14 gal/hd/day Horses = 10-14 gal/hd/day Poultry = 2 parts water:1 part feed

11. Sources of Water 2. Water contained in feeds Highly variable in feedstuffs Grains = 9-30% water Forages Hay <5% Silage 65-75% Lush young grass >90%

12. Calculating Water Content of Feedstuffs 100 lbs of silage (65% moisture) contains how much actual feed? 100 lbs * .65 = 65 lbs of water 100 lbs – 65 lbs = 35 lbs of feed

13. Sources of Water Metabolic Water - Results from the oxidation of organic nutrients in the tissues 1 g of carbohydrates = .6 g of water 1 g of protein = .4 g of water 1 g of fat = 1 g of water May account for 5-10% of total water intake

14. Sources of Water Loss Urine Feces Lungs Skin Milk Conserve water by concentrating urine. Amt of water in feces reflective of water content of diet consuming generally.Conserve water by concentrating urine. Amt of water in feces reflective of water content of diet consuming generally.

15. Factors Affecting Water Intake Temperature & humidity Dietary factors High moisture feeds reduce drinking Fiber, DM intake, salt, and protein increase drinking Lactating vs dry Water quality Hot=high losses-sweat; high humidity=low losses and reduces ability to cool; high CP diets = increase water loss b/c increased urea production—excretion via urine; high FI = more water for metabolic processes.Hot=high losses-sweat; high humidity=low losses and reduces ability to cool; high CP diets = increase water loss b/c increased urea production—excretion via urine; high FI = more water for metabolic processes.

16. Water Absorption Readily absorbed Monogastrics/Ruminants: Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Large Intestine Ruminants: Rumen and Omasum

17. CARBOHYDRATES (CHO)

18. Carbohydrates (CHO) Primary component found in livestock feeds 70% of DM of forages 80% of DM of grains Serve as source of energy or bulk (fiber) in the diet Not ESSENTIAL nutrients Synthesized by animals

19. Carbohydrates (CHO) Definition: Hydrates of carbon formed by combining CO2 and H2O photosynthesis

20. Types of CHO Monosaccharides: 1 sugar molecule Glucose Primary sugar body uses for fuel Fructose Found in honey (75%), fruits, and cane sugar Sweetest sugar Present in low concentrations in animal feedstuffs

21. Monosaccharide (Glucose)

22. Types of CHO Disaccharides: 2 sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond Lactose (galactose + glucose) Milk sugar Sucrose (fructose + glucose) Table sugar Present in higher concentrations in animal feedstuffs

23. Disaccharide (Sucrose)

24. Types of CHO Oligosaccharides: group of CHO consisting of 2-10 sugar groups Present in feed ingredients Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin): present Jerusalem artichokes Galactooligosaccharides: present in soybeans

25. Types of CHO Oligosaccharides Not hydrolytically digested or digested by the action of mammalian enzymes Fermented by beneficial bacteria present in GIT “Functional Feed Ingredient”: foodstuffs which, apart from their normal nutritional value, are said to help promote or sustain healthiness PREBIOTIC

26. Soybean Oligosaccharides

27. Fructooligosaccharides (Inulin)

28. Types of CHO Polysaccharides: many sugar molecules linked by a glycosidic bond Starch: storage form in plants Cellulose: most abundant CHO in nature Hemicellulose: principle component of plant cell wall

29. Polysaccharides

30. Function of CHO Source of energy Source of heat Building block for other nutrients

31. Sources of CHO Cereal Grains Most feedstuffs of plant origin are high in CHO content

32. CHO Digestion Dietary CHO must be converted to be absorbed Simple sugars (monosaccharides) How? Action of amylase enzyme Salivary amylase (swine, poultry) Intestinal amylase Action of other disaccharidases Produced by mucosal lining of duodenum

33. CHO Digestion Mammals do not produce enzymes necessary to digest oligosaccharides and celluloses (fibrous feedstuffs) Digestion occurs as result of bacterial fermentation Where? Rumen Large Intestine (cecum and colon)

34. CHO Digestion Fermentation yields: CO2 H2O Heat (heat increment) Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) or also referred to as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)

35. VFA Production Serve as 70 - 80% of energy requirement in ruminants VFA’s produced in rumen Serve as ~16% of Maintenance energy requirement in swine VFA’s produced in large intestine

36. VFAs Acetate ? with higher roughage levels Produced by cellulolytic & hemicellulolytic bacteria

37. VFAs Propionate ? with higher concentrate levels ? Feed efficiency Ionophores increase propionate production

38. VFAs Butyrate Energy source for rumen wall growth Papillae growth Energy source for colonic cell growth monogastrics

39. VFAs Lactate (not volatile) Anaerobic conditions ? rumen and blood pH Inhibits most microbial growth Acidosis situation

40. CHO Absorption Once simple sugars are formed, they are absorbed rapidly by small intestine Then monosaccharides diffuse into the portal vein which transports them to sites of metabolism

41. VFA Absorption Absorbed through the rumen wall or large intestine mucosa Provide energy source to the animal

42. LIPIDS

43. Lipids Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents Dense energy source: 1 g fat = 9.45 kcal GE 1 g protein = 4.5 kcal GE 1 g CHO = 4.2 kcal GE Thus, fat produces 2.25 times the energy than CHO

44. Lipids Triglyceride: primary storage form of lipids Saturated fatty acids: contain no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acids: contain 1 or more double bonds

45. Lipids

46. Lipids Fats = solid at room temp = animal origin saturated Oils = liquid at room temp = plant origin unsaturated

47. Functions of Lipids Dietary energy supply Source of insulation & protection Source of essential fatty acids (EFA) Carrier for fat soluble vitamins

48. Lipids Essential fatty acids (EFA): Those fatty acids that an animal requires, but which it cannot synthesize in adequate amounts to meet the animal’s need Linoleic C18:2 Linolenic C18:3 Arachidonic C20:4

49. EFA Physiological needs: Cell membrane structure Synthesis of prostaglandins which control blood pressure and smooth muscle contractions Deficiency: Scaly, flaky skin (Poor feather growth) Poor growth

50. Sources of Lipids (EFA) Most feeds contain low levels > 10% Unprocessed oil seeds (soybean, cottonseed, sunflower seed) contain up to 20% fat Traditionally, if additional fat is needed it is added to the diet Animal fats Vegetable oils

51. Lipid Digestion Occurs in the small intestine (duodenum) Bile produced by liver emulsifies fat Pancreatic lipase (enzyme) breaks apart fat for absorption

52. Lipid Absorption Monoglycerides (MG)—absorbed into SI mucosal cells Free Fatty Acids (FFA)—absorbed into SI mucosal cells or enter blood circulation directly

53. Lipid Absorption Very efficient Absorption rates range from 70-96% Generally, oils (unsaturated fats) are absorbed more completely that fats (saturated fats)

54. Ketosis Disorder of metabolism Insufficient energy intake in high producing animals (e.g. Dairy cattle in early lactation and sheep in late pregnancy) Results in catabolism (breakdown) of body energy (fat) reserves

55. Ketosis 2 C fragments (ketones) of fat catabolism (breakdown) build up Toxic levels cause Body weight loss Abortion Poor milk production

56. PROTEINS

57. Proteins Principal constituent of organs and soft tissues Highest concentration of any nutrient, except water, in the body of all living organisms and animals Required for life

58. Proteins DEFINITION: Protein are long chains of amino acids (AA) Formed by peptide linkages Amino group + carbon skeleton

59. Proteins

60. Proteins Dietary requirements highest in young, growing animals and declines at maturity Large molecules that vary greatly in in size, shape, and function MW = 5000 to millions

61. Categories of Protein 1. Essential Amino Acids (EAA): required in the diet cannot be synthesized at a rate sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements

62. Essential AA PVT TIM HALL (KNOW!)

63. Categories of Protein 2. Nonessential AA animal can produce enough to meet it’s requirements 3. Semi-essential AA Animal can not always produce enough to meet its requirements

64. Functions of Protein Basic structural units Collagen, blood, elastin Body metabolism Enzymes, hormones, immune system, hereditary transmission Production Meat, milk, skin/hair

65. Protein Deficiency Reduced growth & feed efficiency Infertility Reduced birth weights Reduced milk production

66. Sources of Protein Most common feedstuffs contain some protein (the quality is another issue) KEY: to combine feedstuffs into the diet so that AA requirements are met e.g. Using a corn-soybean meal diet for pigs

67. Protein Digestion Proteins must be broken down into AA for absorption in the GIT Exception! Early in life (> 48 h after birth) proteins from milk (immunoglobulins) can be absorbed intact across the intestinal epithelium

68. Protein Digestion/Absorption in Monogastrics

69. Monogastric Protein Digestion Stomach: HCl unfolds (denatures) proteins and activates pepsinogen secreted by stomach to pepsin Pepsin begins protein digestion to peptides (short-chain proteins) Small intestine: enzymes (trypsin) break peptides into AA

70. Monogastric Protein Absorption AA are absorbed in anterior part of the small intestine Jejunum and ileum AA are absorbed and transported to tissue via blood

71. Protein Digestion and Absorption in Ruminants

72. Ruminant Protein Digestion In rumen, microbes break down protein to peptides and AA and then degraded further to ammonia, VFAs, and carbon dioxide Ammonia and/or NPN (urea) + CHO source form microbial proteins

73. Ruminant Protein Absorption Protein can be absorbed through rumen wall as ammonia Microbial proteins pass to the lower intestine where they are converted to AA and absorbed

74. Fates of Absorbed AA 1. Tissue protein synthesis 2. Synthesis of enzymes, hormones & other metabolites 3. Use for energy (inefficient energy source)

75. MINERALS

76. Minerals Inorganic components of the diet Can not be synthesized or decomposed by chemical reactions Total mineral content is called “ash” Makes up 3-5% of the body weight

77. Categories of Minerals Macro Minerals: Minerals normally present at greater levels in animal body or needed in large amounts in the diet (found in concentrations > 100 ppm) Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) Sodium (Na) Chloride (Cl) Magnesium (Mg) Potassium (K) Sulfur (S)

78. Categories of Minerals Micro (Trace) Minerals: Minerals normally present at low levels in animal body or needed in small amounts in the diet (found in concentrations < 100 ppm) Cobalt (Co) Copper (Cu) Fluoride (Fl) Iodine (I) Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Molybdenum (Mo) Selenium (Se) Zinc (Zn)

79. General Mineral Functions Skeletal formation and maintenance (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Mn) Protein synthesis (P, S, Zn) Oxygen transport (Fe, Cu) Fluid balance—osmotic pressure (Na, Cl, K) Acid-base balance regulation (Na, Cl, K) Activators or components of enzyme systems (Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn) Mineral-Vitamin relationships (Ca, P, Co, Se)

80. Macro Mineral Deficiencies Ca and P Inadequate bone mineralization Rickets (young) Osteomalacia (adult) Phytate P—bound and unavailable to nonruminants Mg Grass tetany-convulsions, coma, death Likely in grazing, lactating females in early spring or fall Mg is there in the plant, just in bound form due to lack of sunlight

81. Macro Mineral Deficiencies Fe Anemia (insufficient hemoglobin) Young pigs (rapid growth, low stores, low Fe in milk)

82. Trace Mineral Deficiencies Mn Poor growth Poultry—Perosis—deformed and enlarged hock joints I Goiter—swollen thyroid

83. Trace Mineral Deficiencies Cu Fading hair coat color (depigmentation) Low Cu utilization may result when excess Mo or Zn Zn Parakeratosis (dermatitis-thickening of skin) Poor hair or feather development Exacerbated by high Ca

84. Trace Mineral Deficiencies Se White muscle disease-nutritional muscular dystrophy Muscle appears white due to Ca-P deposits Due to low concentration of Se in soil

85. Mineral Toxicities Usually not a problem ($) NaCl can be for swine and poultry Levels above 8%--causes nervous disorders Cu a big problem for sheep and young animals Mineral mixes for other species/age groups used Se has a small margin between requirement (0.3 ppm) & toxicity (8 ppm) Plants grown in regions of high soil Se

86. Sources of Minerals Forages usually considered good sources of minerals Largely dependant on soil conditions Grains are fair source of P, but low in other minerals Mineral premixes Mineral blocks

87. Mineral Absorption Minerals are converted to their ionic form and absorbed in the small intestine

88. Vitamins Organic substances required by the animal in very small amounts Necessary for metabolic activity but not part of body structure Content varies greatly in the feed Requirements depend on species Monogastrics = a lot b/c cannot synthesize Ruminants = few vitamins due to microbial synthesis

89. Types of Vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins Vit A (carotene): vision Vit D: Ca, P absorption Vit E (tocopherol): antioxidant Vit K (menadione): blood clotting Short shelf life (3-4 months) Need lipids for absorption Destroyed by heat, minerals

90. Types of Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin Pyridoxine Pantothenic acid Biotin Choline Folic acid Vitamin B12 Vitamin C

91. Vitamin Functions Reproduction Fetal Development Colostrum Production Milk production Wool Egg Racing

92. Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin A Xerophtalmia: night blindness Poor growth, reproductive failure Vitamin D Rickets Osteomalacia Vitamin K Poor blood clotting/hemorrhaging

93. Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin C Scurvy: slow wound healing, spongy gums, swollen joints, anemia B Complex Vitamins Reduced growth/poor appetite Dermatitis Muscular incoordination

94. Most likely deficient… In practical situations: Ruminants: A, E, D (limited circumstances) Swine: riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, choline, B12, A, D, and sometimes E Poultry: All vitamins except Vitamin C, inositol, and PABA

95. Vitamin Toxicity Unlikely ($) Generally nontoxic Exceptions: A, D, Niacin, Pyridoxine, Choline

96. Sources of Vitamins A: green, leafy forages, corn, fish oil D: fish oils, sun-cured hay E: seed germ oils, green forage or hay K: green forage, fish meal, synthetic menadione

97. Sources of Vitamins B Vitamins: green forages usually Niacin: present in grains, but unavailable to nonruminants B12: protein feeds of animal origin, fermentation products C: citrus fruits, green, leafy forages, well-cured hay

98. Sources of Vitamins Most nonruminants rations contain a vitamin premix Consume basically no forages and B vitamins are poorly available from cereal grains

99. Vitamin Absorption Most vitamins are absorbed in the upper portion of the small intestine Water soluble vitamins are rapidly absorbed Fat soluble vitamin absorption relies on fat absorption mechanisms

100. Nutrition Nutrition provide animals with nutrients to enable them to: maintain grow reproduce lay eggs lactate produce wool work PROFIT – feed animals adequately & economically first must understand process of digestion and absorption of nutrients from feeds

101. Animal Classification By Type of Food Consumed Herbivore - Depends entirely on plant food - Sheep, Cattle, Horses Carnivore – Almost entirely on meat for food - Dog Omnivore – Both meat and plants for food - Swine, Chickens, Humans

102. Animal Classification By Type Digestive System Major differences in anatomy and physiology of digestive tracts of different species Affects nature of digestive processes and the kind of feed that can be utilized by the animal Based upon type of digestive tract, 4 different classifications can be made.

103. Animal Classification By Type Digestive System Monogastrics – Major Category 1. Simple Stomach – Pigs, Humans, Dogs 2. Avian – Chickens, Turkeys 3. Pseudo Ruminants – Horses, Rabbits Ruminants – Cattle, Sheep, Goats

105. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Swine

106. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Swine

107. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Swine

109. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Avian

110. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Avian

112. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Ruminants Mouth – like swine, no enzymes Stomach compartments 1. Reticulum (honeycomb) - hardware disease? 2. Rumen (fermentation vat)

113. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Ruminants Functions of the Rumen: Vat contains slurry of fluid, grain (bottom), boluses of forage and microorganisms Microorganisms are bacteria and protozoa, type changes with type of feed consumed (grain vs forages) In animals consuming forages, microbes present will break down the plant fiber and: Produce energy to be absorbed through the rumen as VFAs Synthesize more microbes (comprised mainly of protein) that are digested as a source of protein for the animal Synthesize ALL essential amino acids and B Vitamins

114. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Ruminants Functions of the Rumen - continued: Major VFAs are Acetate, Propionate and Butyrate Process of digestion of food by microbes is fermentation Rumination is regurgitation of forage boluses from rumen and reticulum Eructation is the belching of gases (CO2 and Methane) produced by the fermentation process – bloat

116. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Ruminants Stomach compartments - continued 3. Omasum (manyplies) - adds water to or absorbs water from rumen contents 4. Abomasum (true stomach) -performs very similar functions as in monogastric animals

117. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Ruminants

119. Digestive System Parts and Functions - Horses Functions of the Cecum microbes present break down the plant fiber: Produce energy to be absorbed through the cecum as VFAs – less efficient than rumen Synthesize more microbes, vitamins and amino acids, not digested and used since cecum is downstream of digestive organs (stomach and small intestine) – Some are absorbed Require higher quality feed and forage

120. Nutrients 6 major classes Water carbohydrates - lipids - proteins vitamins minerals

122. Nutrients Water Functions: part of metabolic reactions transports nutrients temperature regulation moisture in feed? % in grazed forages, silage, hay, corn?

123. Nutrients Carbohydrates Types: simple = starches & sugars complex = cellulose (plant cell walls = fiber) Function: source of energy monogastrics – from grains or cecum (horses) ruminants – from volatile fatty acids

124. Nutrients Lipids (fats & oils) most feeds contain 1-5% fat or oil composed of 3 fatty acids & glycerol Functions: energy source 2.25 x more energy than carbohydrates

125. Nutrients Proteins 25 amino acids are building blocks of animals 10 essential amino acids – not synthesized by body tissues Provided by microbial synthesis in ruminants Must be in diet of all monogastrics 1st limiting = LYSINE only nutrient containing nitrogen (16%)

127. Nutrients Function of Proteins supply amino acids for body proteins - muscle; bone; connective tissue; hormones; enzymes; antibodies; milk components; cell repair

129. Nutrients Vitamins Functions: enzyme cofactors; blood clotting; bone health; health of internal linings of body deficiencies lead to specific disorders

131. Nutrients Mineral Functions -part of some amino acids & vitamins; metabolic reactions; enzyme function; body structure; transport oxygen Deficiency examples:

132. Slides after this point not used in 2002 lectures. STUDENTS – you are not responsible for the information beyond this point on the exam.

134. Nutrient Requirements for Maintenance, Growth, and Production Feed animals to meet nutrient requirements for: maintenance – (about ½ of feed meets this) no growth or production met before supplying any other body function

135. Nutrient Requirements for Maintenance, Growth, and Production growth increase number and(or) size of cells protein synthesis > protein breakdown build muscle, bone, connective tissue

136. Nutrient Requirements for Maintenance, Growth, and Production production fattening/finishing reproduction lactation egg laying work wool

137. Digestion in the Ruminant

138. Digestion in the Ruminant Largest % of herbivores Main fxn of complex stomach of ruminant Utilize the largest CHO source in the world as an energy source Produce food and other products

139. Anatomy

140. Digestion in the Ruminant Mouth No upper teeth Dental pad

141. Digestion in the Ruminant Mouth No upper teeth Dental pad Particle size reduction by teeth grinding against dental pad Saliva Moistens food More importantly provides buffer for rumen Rumen microorganisms produce Volatile Fatty ACIDS

142. Digestion in the Ruminant Esophagus – Same general fxn as in monogastric Complex stomach comprised of four compartments Rumen Contents = ~20% BW of animal Volume – 5 – 60 gallons liquid 5 – 50 lb dry material Rumen size example: 1000 lb steer has a 200 lb rumen Rumen size example: 1000 lb steer has a 200 lb rumen

143. Digestion in the Ruminant Stomach complex con’t Reticulum Omassum Abomasum True glandular stomach Lined with mucous membrane and gastric juice secreted

145. Digestion in the Ruminant Rumen/reticulum and omassum collectively term: ??? Forestomachs ??? Lining of these tissues: Stratified squamous epithelium “layered, scaly” epithelium Not glandular No secretions

146. Digestion in the Ruminant Esophageal groove (reticular groove) Groove which can contract and form tube to bypass rumen/reticulum Empties into omasum Fxn = Allow milk to pass directly to omasum and abomasum Keep milk out of young ruminant’s undeveloped rumen Question – if milk ferments, what happens – ferment (think your refrigerator)Question – if milk ferments, what happens – ferment (think your refrigerator)

147. Digestion in the Ruminant Rumen - Anatomy/Function Main fxn = act as site of anaerobic bacterial fermentation Anaerobic microorganisms live and reproduce No oxygen = anaerobic Undeveloped at birth – sterile Partially developed at 4-6 weeks of age 1st place food goes in adult Some nutrients bypass anaerobic fermentation MO examples – bacteria, protozoa, fungi Partially developed – esophageal groove Some feedstuffs bypass – most everything is fermented by MO’s CHO, Protein, fermented Lipid goes to SI MO examples – bacteria, protozoa, fungi Partially developed – esophageal groove Some feedstuffs bypass – most everything is fermented by MO’s CHO, Protein, fermented Lipid goes to SI

148. Digestion in the Ruminant Rumen wall covered with papillae Small finger-like projections. Increase surface area. Influence by diet and season. Storage of food Consume large amounts can digest later. Regurgitation, remastication, etc. Rumen wall – like SI, increase surface area Influence by diet and season example of how diets influence papillae Forage – larger papillae, growth stimulated by “scratch factor” Concentrate – smaller papillaeRumen wall – like SI, increase surface area Influence by diet and season example of how diets influence papillae Forage – larger papillae, growth stimulated by “scratch factor” Concentrate – smaller papillae

149. Digestion in the Ruminant Microorganisms in the rumen digest CHO – cellulose and starch Fermentations produces Volatile Fatty Acids VFA’s are byproducts of fermentation that the ruminant animal can use for energy. Structure: H3C – C – C00- (acetate)VFA’s are byproducts of fermentation that the ruminant animal can use for energy. Structure: H3C – C – C00- (acetate)

150. Digestion in the Ruminant VFA’s are byproducts of fermentation that the ruminant animal can use for energy. Structure: H3C – C – C00- (acetate)VFA’s are byproducts of fermentation that the ruminant animal can use for energy. Structure: H3C – C – C00- (acetate)

151. Digestion in the Ruminant Main benefit of microbial fermentation Produce microbial protein as they live and reproduce

152. Digestion in the Ruminant Bacteria pass through rumen with feed to lower G.I. Tract Protein (feed and microbial) Microbial protein contains ~50% CP Excellent protein source Microorganism also synthesize: B vitamins – thus no req’t Vitamin K Microorganism also contain: 1 – 2 % CHO 3% fat – essential FA’s present – no req’t for FA

153. Digestion in the Ruminant Rumen provides favorable environment for microbial growth due to: Buffered pH Temperature maintained at 101 to 103 degrees Primarily a liquid media Food supply replenished daily End products of digestion removed Anaerobic Buffering from saliva End products of digestion removed – absorption, VFA’sBuffering from saliva End products of digestion removed – absorption, VFA’s

154. Digestion in the Ruminant - 2 Anatomy – continued Reticulum – Honey Comb Fxn – Site of microbial action & absorption of VFA’s Fxn – Pacemaker for rumen contractions Contractions start in reticulum spread to rumen Mixes rumen contents

155. Digestion in the Ruminant - 2 Anatomy – continued Reticulum – Honey Comb Heavy particles move to bottom, lighter ones float Lighter particles subject to rumination Rumination = regurgitation, remastication, resalivation, reglutition

156. Digestion in the Ruminant - 2 Omasum – “many piles”, lamina propia Fxn is unclear Some water and VFA absorption Some mechanical digestion from lamina Regulates particle size flowing to abomasum/S.I. Abomasum True stomach Secretions HCI – denatures protein, but also kills MCO Mucin, pepsin, etc

157. Digestion in the Ruminant - 2 Small intestine, large intestine Very similar to that for non-ruminant Post Gastric Fermentation Approximately 5-15% of cellulytic digestion can occur in colon and cecum MCO here as well but lost in feces, lose MCO protein VA’s produced and can be absorbed through L.I. Primary function is still water absorption

158. Rumination Process

159. Rumination Process Define = set of steps that reduce particle size of digesta for passage to lower tract Regurgitation Bolus is moved by reverse contraction of esophagus from rumen to mouth Remastication Reduce particle size Resalivation Buffer Nitrogen recycling Reglutition About 8 hrs per day ruminating Increase quality decrease rumination time About 8 hrs per day ruminating Increase quality decrease rumination time

160. Eructation Process of removing gas from the rumen 50 – 200 liters/day Gases produced : H2 – hydrogen CO2 – carbon dioxide CH4 – methane H2S – hydrogen sulfide

161. Eructation Rumen contraction forces gas to the back and then forward Gas forced up esophagus to the trachea

162. Eructation Problem = Bloat Primarily caused by inability to eructate Froth Foam Secondarily caused by something anatomically wrong Commonly seen distention of left side

163. Bloat

164. Eructation Problem = Bloat Primarily caused by inability to eructate Froth Foam Secondarily caused by something anatomically wrong Commonly seen distention of left side Legumes (soluble protein) – primary cause “Barn door left open” – wheat pasture, lush grass Treatment/prevention Trochar Ionphores

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