The Benefits of Music Education on Higher-Level Thinking Skills and Math. By James Lykins. Purpose Statement. The purpose of this paper is to share my experiences of how music instruction can influence higher level learning in other academic area, particularly math. .
By James Lykins
The purpose of this paper is to share my experiences of how music instruction can influence higher level learning in other academic area, particularly math.
The definition of “core academic subjects” for No Child left BehindNCLB defines “core academic subjects” as: English; reading; language arts; mathematics; science; history; geography; economics; civics and government; foreign languages; and the arts. [NCLB 9101(11)]
“The Arts” are defined as: art, dance, music, theater (including public speaking) and drama.
Conjunction Junction, what's your function?Hooking up words and phrases and clauses.Conjunction Junction, how's that function?I got three favorite cars thatget most of my job done.Conjunction Junction, what's their function?I got "and", "but", and "or",They'll get you pretty far.
A noun's a special kind of word,It's any name you ever heard.I find it quite interesting,A noun's a person, place or thing.A noun is a person, place or thing.
Every musical composition has a time signature. This symbol indicates two important facts about the overall rhythm of the piece.
The top number of the time signature indicates how many beats there are in each measure, The bottom number determines what type of note is worth one beat.
When the bottom number changes, the type of note receiving one beat changes. This reinforces division.
They must also figure out how long each note is held. This reinforces fractions!
In 4/4 meter, it looks like this:
A whole note takes up one whole measure
A college analysis of theTime Series of music.
Mathematical patterns in sound waves
A 6th grade study of mathematical patterns found in Johann Sebastian Bach’s music
Music is scienceIt is exact, specific, and demands exact acoustics. A Conductor's full score is a chart, a graph which indicates frequencies, intensities, volume changes, melody, and harmony all at once and with exact control of time.Music is mathematicalIt is rhythmically based on the subdivisions of time into fractions which must be performed, not worked out on paper.
Music is foreign languageMost of the terms are in Italian, German, or French; and the notation is certainly not English - but a highly developed kind of shorthand that uses symbols to represent ideas. The semantics of music is the most complete and universal language.
Music is historyMusic usually reflects the environment and times of its creations, often even the country and/ or racial feeling.
Music is physical educationIt requires coordination of finger, hands, arms, lip, cheek, and facial muscles, in addition to control of the diaphragm, back, stomach, and chest muscles, which respond instantly to the sound the ear hears and the mind interprets.Music is artIt allows a human being to take all these dry, technically boring (but difficult) techniques and use them to create emotion. That is one thing science cannot duplicate: humanism, feeling, and emotion.
Gardner, H. (1999). The disciplined mind. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Harrison, P. A., & Narayan, G. (2003). Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities in adolescence. The Journal of School Health, 73, 113-20.
Leng, X., & Shaw, G. L. (1991). Toward a neural theory of higher brain function using music as a window. Concepts in Neuroscience 2, 229- 258
Standley, J. M. (1996). A meta-analysis on the effect of music as reinforcement for education/therapy objectives. Journal of Research in Music Education, 44, 105-33.United States Department of Education (2004). Proven Methods: The Facts About...Math Achievement. Retrieved October 15, 2005, from http://www.ed.gov/nclb/methods/math/math.html