Introduction to World Politics 2520  1. Course Syllabus     politicalscience.dal

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1. Scientific Approach to Studying World Politicsa. assumptionsb. problems (sins)c. responses2. Levels of Analysis and World Politicsa. assumptionsb. problems2003 Iraq War Case Studyc. implicationsReadings: 1.1. Bruce Russett and Harvey Starr (2000) World Politics: The Menu

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1. Introduction to World Politics 2520 1. Course Syllabus [email protected] 2. Required Readings Reading package available MONDAY, September 6 Julia's Photocopy Service 1525 Lemarchant Street 902-425-4722.

2. 1. Scientific Approach to Studying World Politics a. assumptions b. problems (sins) c. responses 2. Levels of Analysis and World Politics a. assumptions b. problems 2003 Iraq War Case Study c. implications Readings: 1.1. Bruce Russett and Harvey Starr (2000) World Politics: The Menu for Choice (6th ed.) New York: W.H. Freeman and Company: - Chapter 1 “World Politics: Levels of Analysis, Choice, and Constraints” - Chapter 2 “Social Scientific Study of World Politics”

3. 1. Scientific Approach to Studying World Politics a. assumptions 1. scientific knowledge of world politics is possible (*) objective reality is available and observable (*) facts, data, evidence exists to include in models (*) prejudices and personal biases can be controlled 2. scientific methods are appropriate (methods more explicit) (*) they should be applied to study states/leaders (*) descriptions, explanations, predictions enhanced (*) patterns/trends are discoverable (*) similarities outweigh differences across cases 3. scientific methods lead to technically useful knowledge (*) policy relevance is enhanced (*) capacity to resolve global problems enhanced b. problems (sins) c. responses

4. Sins of Social Science 1. Complexity: - focus of analysis (states and leaders) too complex - too many variables / unpredictable - chemicals and objects easier to control in experiment - space flight / aeronautics / robotics / biology / medical sciences ==> all exhibit cumulation, progress, learning curve - social sciences exhibit debate / disagreement ==> progress very slow and incremental ==> international relations highly susceptible to debates - ongoing disagreements about major causes of war ==> Iraq war no exception re. multiplying debates Response: Complexity is a practical research problem, not an insurmountable barrier to explanations, prediction, understanding and social scientific progress.

5. Sins of Social Science cont'd 2. Non-Comparability of Subjects and Events: - scholars forced to find common features across events - forced to disregard differences in favor of similarities - but all wars are different (leaders; personalities; issues; power) - revolutions are different - foreign policy decisions are products of different forces - explanations need to appreciate these differences (History) Response: ‘similarities’ outweigh ‘differences’ in number and relevance: Response: non-comparability is an empirical question that should be tested, not assumed - states are similar in many ways - leaders act similarly despite their different personalities - wars occur for similar reasons despite different actors

6. Sins of Social Science cont'd 3. Humans/States are NOT Deterministic – we have free will - humans, unlike chemicals and objects, have freedom to act/react - different leaders act and react to similar events differently - they have different biases, perceptions, advisors and priorities Response: true, but constraints exist, pressures recur and patterns evolve.

7. Sins of Social Science cont'd 4. Humans Uniquely Conscious of Environment and React Accordingly - human consciousness is a barrier / limitation to social research - Hawthorne experiment - ethical barriers -- can't start war to test theory of war - Stanley Milgram = GOOGLE VIDEOS “Stanley Milgram” Response: true, but alternative research options are available and validity and reliability of findings can be checked. (-) historical methods (-) survey research / polling (-) qualitative methods (-) statistical analysis (-) content analysis Response: we have an obligation to find patterns

8. Levels of Analysis and World Politics a. assumptions b. problems c. implications

9. Levels of Analysis Individual / Leadership * leadership qualities (intelligence); * past experiences, personality; * personal beliefs, religious beliefs, values and preferences; * psychology biases and misperceptions; * world views; * assumes leaders have significant power & influence. 2003 Iraq War *. Michael Moore thesis -- Farenheit 9/11 *. Oliver Stone -- "W" *. "Neoconservatives, Unilateralists started the Iraq War"

10. Neoconism and the Iraq War 1. The decision to attack Saddam Hussein’s regime in March, 2003 was a product of the political biases, misguided priorities, emotions, prejudices intentional deceptions and grand strategies of President George W. Bush and prominent “neoconservatives” on his national security team; 2. Powerful ideologues exploited public fears (and international goodwill) in the aftermath of 9/11 to amplify Iraq's WMD threat (and links to terrorism) as a primary justification for a unilateral, preventive (and unnecessary) invasion; 3. WMD Intelligence was cherry-picked to exaggerate the scope of the Iraqi threat and intentionally deceive the public about Baghdad's WMD-terrorism nexus; 4. Disarming and democratizing the Iraqi regime were viewed as moral imperatives and considered essential to America's long term security interests; 5. The Iraq war was the clearest illustration of the Bush Doctrine in practice. The 'Bush-neocon-war' thesis (neoconism) has emerged as the dominant narrative on the U.S. attack.

11. Neoconism and the Iraq War Books 2003-2008 Francis Fukuyama, America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006); Michael Isikoff and David Corn, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War (New York: Random House, 2006); Jacob Weisberg, The Bush Tragedy (New York: Random House, 2008); Jacob Heilbrunn, They Knew They Were Right: The Rise of the Neocons (New York: Doubleday, 2008); Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (New York: Penguin, 2007); Fred Kaplan Daydream Believers: How a Few Grand Ideas Wrecked American Power (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2008); Mark Buckley and Robert Singh (ed), The Bush Doctrine and the War on Terrorism: Global Reactions, Global Consequences (New York: Routledge, 2006); Roger Burbach and Jim Tarbell, Imperial Overstretch: George W. Bush and the Hubris of Empire (London: Zed Books, 2004); Homer Duncan Bush and Cheney's War: A War Without Justification (London: Trafford Publishing, 2006); Craig Eisendrath and Melvin A. Goodman Bush League Diplomacy: How the Neoconservatives Are Putting the World at Risk (New York: Prometheus Books, 2004); John Prados Hoodwinked: How George Bush Sold U.S. A War (New York: New Press, 2004); James Risen, State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration (New York: Free Press, 2006); Samuel Belsham Moki Bush and Gulf War II: A Study in Presidential Leadership (MD: Publish America, 2006); Robert Draper, Dead Certain: The Presidency of George W. Bush (New York: Free Press, 2007); Glenn Greenwald, Tragic Legacy: How a Good vs. Evil Mentality Destroyed the Bush Presidency (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2008); Thomas Oliphant, Utter Incompetents: Ego and Ideology in the Age of Bush (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2007); Grant F. Smith, Deadly Dogma: How Neoconservatives Broke the Law to Deceive America (New York: Institute for Research, 2006); Stephen J. Sniegoski, The Transparent Cabal: The Neoconservative Agenda, War in the Middle East, and the National Interest of Israel (Norfolk: Ihs Press, 2008); Craig Unger, American Armageddon: How the Delusions of the Neoconservatives and the Christian Right Triggered the Descent of America (New York: Scribner, 2008); Craig Unger The Fall of the House of Bush: The Untold Story of How a Band of True Believers Seized the Executive Branch, Started the Iraq War, and Still Imperils America's Future (New York: Scribner, 2007). Jack L. Goldsmith Takeover: The Return of the Imperial Presidency and the Subversion of American Democracy W. W. Norton, New York NY (September 10, 2007)

12. Melvin Gurtov Superpower on Crusade: The Bush Doctrine in US Foreign Policy. Lynne Rienner Pub, Boulder CO (Jan 30 2006) Alan Kennedy-Shaffer Denial and Deception: A Study of the Bush Administration's Rhetorical Case for Invading Iraq. Universal Publishers, Sydney AU (July 5, 2006) Lewis Lapham Pretensions to Empire: Notes on the Criminal Folly of the Bush Administration.The New Press, New York NY (Sep 1 2007) Charlie Savage Takeover: The Return of the Imperial Presidency & the Subversion of American Democracy. Back Bay Books London, UK (April 28 2008) James A. Swanson The Bush League of Nations: The Coalition of the Unwilling, the Bullied and the Bribed: The GOP's War on Iraq and America CreateSpace (April 25, 2008) Marcy Wheeler Anatomy of Deceit: How the Bush Administration Used the Media to Sell the Iraq War and Out a Spy. Vaster Books, Berkeley CA (January 25, 2007) Madeline Albright Madam Secretary: A Memoir. Miramax, New York, NY (April 6, 2005) International Studies Association Annual Meetings Sample of Papers with Neconist Assumptions SAN FRANCISCO 2008 Chaudet, Didier "The Neoconservative Movement at the End of the Bush Administration: Its Legacy, Its Vision, Its Political Future" McDonald, Matt. and Jackson, Richard “Selling War: The Coalition of the Willing and the 'War on Terror'" Monten, Jonathan. and Busby, Joshua “Winner Takes All: How did Unilateralism Triumph in the Republican Party?” Parmar, Inderjeet "Is the American Foreign Policy Establishment Dominated by Neo-Conservatives?” Van Apeldoorn, Bastiaan. and De Graaff, Naná “The making of the 'long war':neo-conservative networks and continuity and change in US 'grand strategy'” C H I C A G O 2007 Boyle, Michael “The War on Terror in American Grand Strategy.” Flibbert, Andrew “Who Lost Iraq? Policy Entrepreneurs and the War Decision.” Gadinger, Frank “Practices of Security in the Light of 9-11: From a US-identity Crisis to a Crusade of Freedom.” Hanes, Madalina “Where You Stand, Where You Sit and How You Think; Bureaucratic Roles and Individual Personalities.” Hanes, Madalina. and Schafer, Mark "The Private-Psychological Sources of a Public War: Why George W. Bush went to war with Saddam" Nabers, Dirk. and Patman, Robert “9/11 and the Rise of Political Fundamentalism in the US: Domestic Legitimatisation versus International Estrangement?” Thrall, A.. and Cramer, Jane “Why Did the U.S. Invade Iraq? Survey and Evidence.” Western, Jon “Discounting the Costs of War in Iraq: Resurrecting the Ideology of the Offensive.”

13. S A N D I E G O 2006 Gourevitch, Alex “National Insecurities: Narcissism, Neoconservatism, and the American National Interest.” Ish-Shalom, Piki “The Civilization of Clashes: Neoconservative Reading of the Theory of the Democratic Peace.” Lobasz, Jennifer. and Krebs, Ronald “Fixing the Meaning of 9/11: Rhetorical Coercion and the Iraq War.” Morkevicius, Valerie "Faith-Based War? Religious Rhetoric and Foreign Policy in the Bush Administration.” O'Driscoll, Cian “Anticipatory War and the Just War Tradition: Sufficient Threats, Just Fears, Unknown Unknowns, and the Invasion of Iraq.” O'Reilly, Marc. and Renfro, Wesley ”Like Father, Like Son? A Comparison of the Foreign Policies of George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush.” Schonberg, Karl “Wilsonian Unilateralism: Rhetoric and Power in American Foreign Policy since 9/11.” H O N O L U L U 2005 Dunn, David “The Transformation of American Foreign Policy and the Conflicting Strategies of the War on Terrorism.” Franke, Volker “’W's Manifest Destiny: Faith-Based U.S. Foreign Policy for the 21st Century?.” George, Jim “The Neo-Conservative Ascendancy and US Hegemony: History, Legacies and Implications.” Gill, Stephen “The New Imperialism and the War in Iraq.” Monten, Jonathan “Neoconservatism and the Promotion of Democracy Abroad.” Payne, Rodger. and Dombrowski, Peter “Preemptive War: Crafting a New International Norm.” Stempel, John “The Ideology and Reality of American Primacy: Hope, Error, and Incompetence.” Sickles, Monica “A Neoconservative Just War: Implications of the Iraq Campaign.” H O N O L U L U R O U N D T A B L E S “The Sources of U.S. Unilateralism: Using Perceptions of Foreign Policy Failures to Explain Neo-conservatism” “Presidential Character and the Decision-Making Process: Values, Political Strategy, and Loyalty as Independent Variables in the Foreign Policy of George W. Bush.”

14. M O N T R E A L 2004 Attwood, Tyler “Hegemony and the Bush Administration's Foreign Policy: A reconfiguration of American Grand Strategy.” Bozdaglioglu, Yucel “Hegemonic (In)stability and the Limits of US Hegemony in the Middle East.” Buzan, Barry “US Hegemony, American Exceptionalism and Unipolarity.” Bzostek, Rachel. and McCall, Kathryn Weir “The Bush Doctrine: An Application of Crabb's Doctrinal Criteria and Illustration of Resulting Changes in American Foreign Policy.” Dietrich, John “Candidate Bush to Incumbent Bush: The Development of an Internationalist, Unilateralist and Interventionist.” Dunn, David “911, the Bush Doctrine and the Implications of the War on Iraq.” Dietrich, John “Candidate Bush to Incumbent Bush: The Development of an Internationalist, Unilateralist and Interventionist.” Entessar, Nader “Permanent War, Elusive Peace: The Next U.S. War in the Middle East.”  Katzenstein, Lawrence “Assessing U.S. Intent in the Onset of the Iraq War.” Keller, Jonathan “The Making of a Crusader: George W. Bush, September 11th, and the War Against Iraq.” Rodriguez, Emilio “George W. Bush And The End Of The New World Order.” Porpora, Douglas "Structure, Ideology, and the New American Hegemony.” Ryan, David “Framing the Response: US Hegemony after September 11” Wahlrab, Amentahru “Realism, Security, and Democracy: A 'Sophisticated' Realist Critique of the War on Terrorism.”

15. Roles of Decision-Makers * individuals act on behalf of organizations; * preferences defined by the roles they occupy; * less power to leaders, more to advisers (gatekeepers); * advisers control information flow (power); * Bill Graham (DFAIT) vs. Bill Graham (Defence). Iraq War * Colin Powell (State) vs. Donald Rumsfeld (Defence); (-) policy a function of who wins and loses battles; (-) neocons lost battle to Powell and Blair -- return to UN; (-) neocons lost battle to avoid Congress; (-) neocons lost battle to avoid 2nd UN resolution.

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